Reflective Journals and Papers

 

Richard Branson

Coonor as a child

PIDP 3100 Foundations of Adult Learning

The Foundations of Adult Education course introduces participants to knowledge and skills which will be developed in subsequent courses of the Provincial Instructor Diploma Program. Participants will review key elements from the background and theory of adult education and the cognitive sciences. They will discuss the characteristics of the adult learner and adult learning, and outline key roles of the adult educator. In addition, participants will develop skills related to reflective practice, communication, and the use of learning tools. They will use search strategies to access resources which they will require in their work. Participants will be introduced to concepts and techniques used to plan for teaching and learning. They will examine ways to create positive environments for learning in courses, workshops, presentations, and short forms of on-the-job training.

 

The primary instructional strategies for the course are in-class workshops, interactive instructor presentations, discussions, group work, independent research and reflective writing.

“Persevering at online learning is also affected by computer and information literacy, time management…online communication skills…self-esteem…feelings of belongingness in the online program and the ability to develop interpersonal skills with peers”

Objective

This is another great quote from the book that is a mantra I say to myself every day. Persistence is captured in this quote that I use often –

Genius is one percent inspiration, ninety-nine percent perspiration.

Thomas Edison

Spoken statement (c. 1903); published in Harper’s Monthly (September 1932).

Reflective

This quote is important to me as I have taken so many courses online including my MBA. It has been amazing but hard. The first advice I got was to “give up all your hobbies” and focus on the course using your spare time afterwards for other things – it was great advice. I liked the connection from the beginning with Skype call from Glenn and then the Skype call with a partner. It helped make the connection as sometimes you feel very alone when you are online. It is important to be connecting to the course and others. We were lucky to have many of us taking this course online at our company so we did have some offline pressure as well as you saw colleagues at work.

Interpretive

Time management is a soft skill that not everyone is good at. You really need to master this as you have no teacher keeping you on task. As the above quote states, it is essential in order to persevere in any course, particularly in online courses, where assignment completion is self-directed. Time management can be focused on explicitly in a course by having learners begin each course with a self-assessment of their own strategies and perceptions of their time management skills. In addition, learners can keep track by using the schedule that was provided for us on the first day of this program which I wish I used more!. Instructors can make this skill relevant for learners by connecting what is being learned in class. In any workplace or in any higher education setting, the ability to meet deadlines, manage time, be organized, plan ahead and prioritize tasks is important.
Decisional

While the reasons for taking online classes are many, online communication differs greatly from face-to-face communication. There is no room for elements of non-verbal and vocal communication such as tone, pitch, speed, and body language. You must persevere and manage your time well to be successful.

References

Quotes from Thomas Edison

https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Thomas_Edison

Merriam, S.B., & Bierema, L.L. (2014). Jossey-Bass Adult Learning: Linking Theory and Practice.

008_ChangingSeason from KPAC

PIDP 3100 Foundations of Adult Learning – Reflective Journal Entry

Merriam and Bierema (2014) in their book Adult Learning- Linking theory and Practice, state that the key perspective on learning and reflection is that– ‘learning from one’s experience involves not just reflection, but critical reflection’.

Objective

This is another great quote as self-awareness and critical reflection are so important. I always saw feedback is a gift and ask for it all the time in my class as it helps me with my reflection on what worked and what did not in my lessons. What works and what does not work is an ongoing practice and a good educator can do this on the fly when they have the experience. You are constantly monitoring the “track”, the “car” and the “situation” just like a Formula 1 driver one of my favourite sports.  After reflecting on my material, I may decide to change and rework my lesson, my activity or my plans and/or my life!.

Reflective
“When you want to teach children to think, you begin by treating them seriously when they are little, giving them responsibilities, talking to them candidly, providing privacy and solitude for them, and making them readers and thinkers of significant thoughts from the beginning. That’s if you want to teach them to think.” ― Bertrand Russell

https://www.goodreads.com/quotes/tag/teaching

I love this quote and this man Bertrand Russell oozes reflection. You have to reflect on what you are doing in the classroom. You have to think. You have to make the students think. Learning happens when we learn to think. The best way to engage learners is to help them create connections of content in the context of things they have knowledge or experience about. These connections happen through reflection. We are very often averse to new ideas, especially those that can change or challenge our pre-formed beliefs and assumptions. Therefore, reflection may help us make connections between new ideas and assumptions but it may be still biased. We may be viewing and accepting new ideas with old glasses and not truly looking at them in the proper light.

Interpretive

Critical Reflection is the key to move us forward as educators, past our biases and assumptions and make us freely develop knowledge and use information in meaningful ways. Critical thinking is powerful and transformational.

Decisional

Critical reflection is the key to all learning. To be educated, is to be skilled in reflecting critically.

References

Quotes on Learning

https://www.goodreads.com/quotes/tag/teaching

Merriam, S.B., & Bierema, L.L. (2014). Jossey-Bass Adult Learning: Linking Theory and Practice.

bohr11-hp

PIDP 3100 Foundations of Adult Learning

– Reflective Journal Entry

Over forty years ago, Rogers (1969) articulated the very contemporary notion that in this high-speed globalized world what is really crucial for survival is that we all become lifelong learners. He wrote that an educated person is one “who has learned how to learn…how to adapt and change” and realizes “that no knowledge is secure, that only the process of seeking knowledge gives a basis for security.”

Objective

I really like this quote. It speaks to my philosophy of lifelong learning. No knowledge is secure – things change quickly – just look at what i-tunes did to the music industry.

Reflective

It is so important to help manage change in the classroom and teach students to change. We need to learn new techniques to understand and deepen our understanding of learning to manage change, we need to understand learning theories and how they can be used in the classrooms. We need to be more creative and resourceful. I love the quote from the fist journal entry “Students need to be prepared as self-directed, lifelong learners “for jobs that do not yet exist, to use technologies that have not been invented, and to solve problems that we don’t even know are problems yet” (Darling-Hammond et all 2008 P.2 )(Quoted on P.5 Merriam and Bierema.

Interpretive

As educators we have a big responsibility to train our students in not just the content but in such ways that they are not daunted by new content, by the need to upgrade.

Decisional

Lifelong learning is not a choice, it is a necessity. Whether we realize it or not, we are all lifelong learners and thus learning how to learn can just train us, to do effectively, what we all do, all our lives- learn. We need to embrace change to learn.

References

Merriam, S.B., & Bierema, L.L. (2014). Jossey-Bass Adult Learning: Lin

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Hillspring, Alberta

PIDP 3100 Foundations of Adult Learning

– Reflective Journal Entry

Our societies and economies have experienced a profound transformation from reliance on an industrial to a knowledge base. Global drivers increasingly bring to the fore what some call “21st century competencies” – including deep understanding, flexibility, and the capacity to make creative connections, a range of so-called “soft-skills” including good team working. The quantity and quality of learning thus become central, with the accompanying concern that traditional educational approaches are insufficient.” Dumont and Istane (2010)

Objective

I really like this quote. We always talk about the 21st century and how different things are from the past and our new knowledge economy where information increases as does our speed of access to it. Soft skills include good teamwork but also other things such as getting along with others, ethics and often referred to as people skills.

There is often discussion around emotional intelligence where the leaders of companies and projects for example need the soft and hard skills to do their jobs. As an educator it is important for me to keep up to the changes that surround me in the new economy where classrooms are flipped (videos are for homework and the students come to class to demonstrate understanding. – P.5 Merriam and Bierema) and people talk about bringing their own devices for example. Collectively educators need to look at these trends, understand them and make changes to the way we teach so the leaders of tomorrow will have the skills required to compete effectively. As educators we need to help our students to develop the skills to access current and reliable information, critically analyze it and be able to use that information in a logical and effective way.

Reflective

There is a greater need for instructors to help students be more creative in how they learn.  They need to know how to learn as the game changes so quickly. A quote in the book noted that “most professional preparation becomes outdated before one gets situated in a career. Hewlett Packard has estimated that what one learns in a Bachelor of Engineering Program is outdated or “deconstructs itself in 18 months and for the technology fields the half life is even less. Students need to be prepared as self-directed, lifelong learners “for jobs that do not yet exist, to use technologies that have not been invented, and to solve problems that we don’t even know are problems yet” (Darling-Hammond et all 2008 P.2 )(Quoted on P.5 Merriam and Bierema) They must be prepared to continually advance their knowledge and skills. They will be expected to keep pace with rapid changes and apply their knowledge and skills to diverse situations and environments. What employers want are employees who can process information, understand what is happening, be creative problem solvers, and make good decisions often with limited information.

Soft skills are also important for instructors to foster in students. Good teamwork is important for example and they need to work in groups effectively. Being more team oriented in the workplace means as educators we need to help our students develop skills that will allow them to work well in groups. This is often a challenge as some have been victims of bad groups for numerous reasons in the past and prefer to work solo.

Interpretive

Acquiring knowledge is important but that information can become outdated very quickly.

It is essential for people to be able to identify reliable and valid sources of information and to critically think and question the information in front of them. Technology has also allowed us to work with others much more easily and many of us are on the “cloud”. Skype puts us right there in the room. We can work on projects with others almost anywhere in the world. There are challenges though with working with a diverse team as there is a greater chance of miscommunication and misunderstanding.

Soft skills become more important so that team members can be respectful and sensitive to differences like age, cultural, etc. when working with each other.

Decisional

There can be more than one goal when helping students to learn. Meeting the learning objective is just part of what can be taught. How students learn can help them to develop valuable skills in the future and we need as educators to address any gaps required in the 21st Century through learning ourselves how to be more effective. We need to be ahead of that curve.

References

Dumont, H., Istance, D. & Benavides, F. (2010) The Nature of Learning: Using Research to Inspire Practice. Paris: OECD.

Merriam, S.B., & Bierema, L.L. (2014). Jossey-Bass Adult Learning: Linking Theory and Practice.

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mary_leakeys_100th_birthday-1026006-hp

PIDP 3210 Curriculum Development

The Curriculum Development course introduces participants to a range of theories and approaches to curriculum development, such as competency-based education and outcomes-based education. Although this course introduces such general concepts of curriculum theory and practice, the course focuses primarily upon the design and development of curriculum documents. In particular, participants will develop material related to their own work environment. In addition, participants will develop skills related to instructional design such as the development of plans for teaching and learning. The course highlights the importance of alignment; that is, the connection between course outcomes/goals, delivery of instruction, and the assessment and evaluation of learning. The course also prompts reflection upon the importance of designing and developing positive learning environments.

Our Garden - Tending Knowledge

This was the work of one of my classmates – just brilliant……..Curriculum Design PIDP 3210

Reflective Writing #1 – The Two Stage Exam

PDIP 3210 Curriculum Development

September 7th 2016

 PIDP 3210 Curriculum Development – Course Outcomes

  1. Discern and articulate the need(s) driving the development or revision of a course, workshop or learning event.
  2. Select, use, and justify appropriate strategies and methodologies for developing a course.
  3. Develop or modify a course or workshop.
  4. Determine, select, and use adult learning activities and experiences.
  5. Develop course curriculum documents.
  6. Align curriculum, instruction, and evaluation.
  7. Analyze curriculum design processes and outcomes.
  8. Use professional and respectful communication skills.

In class we were introduced to a video of a Two Stage Exam that was taken at the University of British Columbia in October 2014 1.

I did some research on this to understand the process because I was interested in how it worked and how I could make it work.

“In a two-stage exam, students first complete and turn in the exam individually and then, working in small groups, answer the exam questions again. During the group part students receive immediate, targeted feedback on their solutions from their fellow students and see alternative approaches to the problems. This makes the exam itself a valuable learning experience1 while also sending a consistent message to the students as to the value of collaborative learning. In the numerous implementations at UBC, students are always highly engaged in spirited discussion during the group part of the exam. This exam format was first introduced in the UBC Faculty of Science in 2009 and is now being used in at least 20 science courses. “1

We have found that students’ response to the use of two-stage exams is overwhelmingly positive. In response to a survey, 87% of the students recommended continued use of two-stage midterm exams and only a few percent recommended against their use.2 Some student quotes indicate what they found useful about the exams:

“I was able to instantly learn from my mistakes.”

“Interesting. All had different ways [of] approaching the question. Very helpful to understand everyone’s response and why they thought their answer was correct.” 1

Objective

What caught my attention in this video was that the student really liked the experience and the resulting marks were an improvement. The number of 87% recommendation is excellent. The group of four and teaching each other what they got wrong is very interesting.

Reflective

After I saw the video I reflected on the idea of the second chance and the opportunity for students to defend their ideas with their peers. As the speaker noted “the students really engage with each other” 2. As the student says “she likes the idea of a second chance and that she learns more and remembers more” 2. I thought about several things like “it looks very interesting”, “will it be accepted by the students and the administration in Qatar as a new method of assessment”. I loved the engagement and that was what resonated with me the most. I thought that I could try this as a small activity and see what happens. My concerns would be though that there could be grade inflation with students getting a second chance to improve their mark.

Interpretive

I like the enthusiasm and the excitement of the presenter and the quote “they are talking about biology”. I think it is worth looking at although I do have questions on the mechanics and acceptability with both the students and administration. There could be many cultural issues as well with this idea such as women working with men in small groups and losing face with each other because they are wrong, although I think our learning environment is very supportive and they would understand that it is not “personal” it is learning.

Decisional

I really like the idea of introducing this to my professional practice but I have several things to consider. First of all, I think I would not keep the marks the first time I try it. Secondly I would like to see the feedback from the students. Third I would like to talk more to my colleagues and hear their reaction to the idea. I do have some concerns regarding grade inflation but I will not know what might happen until I try this.

I found myself spending a lot of time reading through my references and I am very interested in the mechanics of how to do this.

As far as deciding I feel I need to think about this some more and look for an application in my courses on Business for Information Technology, Small Business Development and Professional Selling that I am teaching this semester. I think the first course might be a really good trial as the Information Technology students are generally open to new ideas.

I am very grateful for the opportunity to see this idea as result of taking this course and I look forward to trying something, and walking before I run. I am going to look into this in more detail over the course of the next month.

 

 Strategies that have worked well: Good practices

Comments

Explain to the students why you are conducting exams this way

Tell students on the first day of classes that examinations will be conducted in this format and, more importantly, why this is done in this way.

Make exam about 2/3 as long as you would for a normal exam

Timing: have the individual part take up about 2/3 of the total time (e.g. 50-55 min out of an 80 min slot). It is more challenging to do a two-stage exam in a 50 min slot, but it is doable.

Give the majority of the exam score for the individual part

Typically weight 85-90% for the individual portion, and 15% to 10%, respectively, for the group portion.

Assure students that their overall exam score will not go down due to the group part

Implementing a policy that a student’s grade cannot be lower than the individual score addresses concerns about fairness. In practice, it affects only a few high-performing students, as groups perform equal or better than individual students in almost all cases.

 

Source 1

References

  1. Web Site Two Stage Exam Results
  2. You Tube Video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZVFwQzlVFy0
  3. Web Site http://www.cwsei.ubc.ca/resources/files/Two-stage_Exams.pdf
  4. Web Site http://www.aapt.org/docdirectory/meetingpresentations/SM15/Concannon-AAPTSM15.pdf
  5. Web Site https://library.iated.org/view/YU2009IMP
  6. Web Site http://www.cwsei.ubc.ca/resources/files/Two-stage_Exams.pdf
  7. Web Site https://teachingcommons.stanford.edu/teaching-talk/turn-exam-learning-experience-two-stage-exams

Cat

Reflective Writing #2 – Cognitive Dissonance

PDIP 3210 Curriculum Development

September 15th 2016

PIDP 3210 Curriculum Development – Course Outcomes

  1. Discern and articulate the need(s) driving the development or revision of a course, workshop or learning event.
  2. Select, use, and justify appropriate strategies and methodologies for developing a course.
  3. Develop or modify a course or workshop.
  4. Determine, select, and use adult learning activities and experiences.
  5. Develop course curriculum documents.
  6. Align curriculum, instruction, and evaluation.
  7. Analyze curriculum design processes and outcomes.
  8. Use professional and respectful communication skills.

In class we were introduced to a video of a Cognitive Dissonance.

Background

Cognitive dissonance refers to a situation involving conflicting attitudes, beliefs or behaviors. This produces a feeling of discomfort leading to an alteration in one of the attitudes, beliefs or behaviors to reduce the discomfort and restore balance etc. 1

For example, when people smoke (behavior) and they know that smoking causes cancer (cognition).

diblert-cartoon

Festinger’s (1957) cognitive dissonance theory suggests that we have an inner drive to hold all our attitudes and beliefs in harmony and avoid disharmony (or dissonance).1

Attitudes may change because of factors within the person. An important factor here is the principle of cognitive consistency, the focus of Festinger’s (1957) theory of cognitive dissonance. This theory starts from the idea that we seek consistency in our beliefs and attitudes in any situation where two cognitions are inconsistent.1

Leon Festinger (1957) proposed cognitive dissonance theory, which states that a powerful motive to maintain cognitive consistency can give rise to irrational and sometimes maladaptive behavior.1

According to Festinger, we hold many cognitions about the world and ourselves; when they clash, a discrepancy is evoked, resulting in a state of tension known as cognitive dissonance. As the experience of dissonance is unpleasant, we are motivated to reduce or eliminate it, and achieve consonance (i.e. agreement).1

Cognitive dissonance was first investigated by Leon Festinger, arising out of a participant observation study of a cult which believed that the earth was going to be destroyed by a flood, and what happened to its members — particularly the really committed ones who had given up their homes and jobs to work for the cult — when the flood did not happen. 1

While fringe members were more inclined to recognize that they had made fools of themselves and to “put it down to experience”, committed members were more likely to re-interpret the evidence to show that they were right all along (the earth was not destroyed because of the faithfulness of the cult members).1

According to cognitive dissonance theory, there is a tendency for individuals to seek consistency among their cognitions (i.e., beliefs, opinions). When there is an inconsistency between attitudes or behaviors (dissonance), something must change to eliminate the dissonance.

Cognitive dissonance is a psychological term describing the uncomfortable tension that may result from having two conflicting thoughts at the same time, or from engaging in behavior that conflicts with one’s beliefs, or from experiencing apparently conflicting phenomena.

In simple terms, it can be the filtering of information that conflicts with what you already believe, in an effort to ignore that information and reinforce your beliefs.

In detailed terms, it is the perception of incompatibility between two cognitions, where “cognition” is defined as any element of knowledge, including attitude, emotion, belief, or behavior.

The theory of cognitive dissonance states that contradicting cognitions serve as a driving force that compels the mind to acquire or invent new thoughts or beliefs, or to modify existing beliefs, so as to reduce the amount of dissonance (conflict) between cognitions. 4

The theory of cognitive dissonance has been widely researched in a number of situations to develop the basic idea in more detail, and various factors that have been identified which may be important in attitude change.

This research can be divided into three main areas:

  1. forced compliance behavior,
  2. decision-making,
  3. and effort.

“The Fox and the Grapes”

A classic illustration of cognitive dissonance is expressed in the fable “The Fox and the Grapes” by Aesop (ca. 620–564 BCE). In the story, a fox sees some high-hanging grapes and wishes to eat them. When the fox is unable to think of a way to reach them, he decides that the grapes are probably not worth eating, with the justification that the grapes probably are not ripe or that they are sour (hence the common phrase “sour grapes“). The moral that accompanies the story is “Any fool can despise what he cannot get”. This example follows a pattern: one desires something, finds it unattainable, and reduces one’s dissonance by criticizing it. Jon Elster calls this pattern “adaptive preference formation”. 2

While cognitive dissonance theory has been utilized in experiments and is generally (although not entirely) accepted by those in the psychology field, there are alternative theories that account for human attitudes and behaviors.

Self-perception theory (Bem)

Daryl Bem was an early critic of cognitive dissonance theory. He proposed self-perception theory as a more parsimonious alternative explanation of the experimental results. According to Bem, people do not think much about their attitudes, let alone whether they are in conflict. Bem’s self-perception theory functions under the notion that people develop attitudes by observing their own behavior and concluding what attitudes caused it. This is particularly true when internal cues are weak or ambiguous. Individuals are in the same position as an observer—meaning they must rely on external cues to infer their own inner state. Self-perception theory suggests people adopt attitudes without accessing internal cognition and mood states 2.[41]

pegs

Bem interpreted people in the Festinger and Carlsmith study or the induced-compliance paradigm as inferring their attitudes from their behavior. Thus, when asked “Did you find the task interesting?” they decided that they must have found it interesting because that is what they told someone. Bem suggested that people who were paid $20 had a salient, external incentive for their behavior and were likely to perceive the money as their reason for saying the task was interesting, rather than concluding that they actually found it interesting.[42][43]

In many experimental situations, Bem’s theory and Festinger’s dissonance theory make identical predictions, but only dissonance theory predicts the presence of unpleasant tension or arousal. Lab experiments have verified the presence of arousal in dissonance situations.[44][45] This provides support for cognitive dissonance theory and makes it unlikely that self-perception by itself can account for all the laboratory findings. 2

Objective

People tend to seek consistency in their beliefs and perceptions. So what happens when one of our beliefs conflicts with another previously held belief?

The term cognitive dissonance is used to describe the feelings of discomfort that result from holding two conflicting beliefs. When there is a discrepancy between beliefs and behaviors, something must change in order to eliminate or reduce the dissonance. 3

As noted we hold many cognitions about the world and ourselves; when they clash, a discrepancy is evoked, resulting in a state of tension known as cognitive dissonance. As the experience of dissonance is unpleasant, we are motivated to reduce or eliminate it, and achieve consonance (i.e. agreement).1

Individuals can adjust their attitudes or actions in various ways. Adjustments result in one of three relationships between two cognitions or between a cognition and a behavior 2.

Consonant relationship

Two cognitions/actions that are consistent with one another (e.g., not wanting to get intoxicated while out, then ordering water instead of alcohol)

Irrelevant relationship

Two cognitions/actions that are unrelated to one another (e.g., not wanting to get intoxicated while out, then tying your shoes)

Dissonant relationship

Two cognitions/actions that are inconsistent with one another (e.g., not wanting to get intoxicated while out, then consuming a large quantity of alcohol)

Magnitude of dissonance

The amount of dissonance produced by two conflicting cognitions or actions (as well as the subsequent psychological distress) depends on two factors:

  1. The importance of cognitions: The more that the elements are personally valued, the greater the magnitude of the dissonant relationship.
  2. Ratio of cognitions: The proportion of dissonant to consonant elements

The pressure to reduce cognitive dissonance is a function of the magnitude of this dissonance. 2

 Reflective

 Most of the research on cognitive dissonance takes the form of one of four major paradigms. Important research generated by the theory has been concerned with the consequences of exposure to information inconsistent with a prior belief, what happens after individuals act in ways that are inconsistent with their prior attitudes, what happens after individuals make decisions, and the effects of effort expenditure. A key tenet of cognitive dissonance theory is that those who have heavily invested in a position may, when confronted with disconfirming evidence, go to greater lengths to justify their position. 2

Creating and resolving cognitive dissonance can have a powerful impact on students’ motivation for learning.[24] For example, researchers have used the effort justification paradigm to increase students’ enthusiasm for educational activities by offering no external reward for students’ efforts: preschoolers who completed puzzles with the promise of a reward were less interested in the puzzles later, as compared to preschoolers who were offered no reward in the first place.[25] The researchers concluded that students who can attribute their work to an external reward stop working in the absence of that reward, while those who are forced to attribute their work to intrinsic motivation came to find the task genuinely enjoyable.

Psychologists have incorporated cognitive dissonance into models of basic processes of learning, notably constructivist models. Several educational interventions have been designed to foster dissonance in students by increasing their awareness of conflicts between prior beliefs and new information (e.g., by requiring students to defend prior beliefs) and then providing or guiding students to new, correct explanations that resolve the conflicts.[26]

For example, researchers have developed educational software that uses these principles to facilitate student questioning of complex subject matter.[27] Meta-analytic methods suggest that interventions that provoke cognitive dissonance to achieve directed conceptual change have been demonstrated across numerous studies to significantly increase learning in science and reading 2.[26] 

Interpretive

An educator might introduce topics by challenging students’ intuitions. For instance, a student may be more willing to learn the real cause of the seasons after wrongly guessing that it has something to do with changes in the distance of Earth’s orbit from the Sun. 2

Observations

  • “The basic hypothesis I wish to state are as follows: 1. The existence of dissonance, being psychologically uncomfortable, will motivate the person to try to reduce the dissonance and achieve consonance. 2. When dissonance is present, in addition to trying to reduce it, the person will actively avoid situations and information which would likely increase the dissonance.” (Festinger, 1957)
  • “Festinger’s insistence that cognitive dissonance was like a drive that needed to be reduced implied that people were going to have to find some way of resolving their inconsistencies. People do not just prefer eating over starving; we are driven to eat. Similarly, people who are in the throes of inconsistency in their social life are driven to resolve that inconsistency. How we go about dealing with our inconsistency can be rather ingenious. But, in Festinger’s view, there is little question that it will be done.”
    (Cooper, 2007) 3

Cognitive dissonance is also used in advertising and marketing.

Advertisers want to create dissonance for non-users of their product. Advertisers believe that a consumer may uses a particular product because he or she believes the advertising for that product, which claims that the product is the best of its kind. Other ways companies use the theory of cognitive dissonance to get people to like or buy their product is by getting their logo or brand name on a positive image. Some examples of this are companies such as Under Armour who advertises their products with the wounded warrior project and Starbuck’s partnership with Product RED to help people living with HIV or Aids in Africa. Dissonance may be created in people after they spend $7 on a cup of coffee at Starbucks. This is because realistically paying such a large amount on a cup of coffee is ridiculous. However, people are more willing to pay $6 or $7 for a cup of coffee if they can rationalize their purchase by changing their thinking to relieve that discomfort by telling themselves their money is going to a good cause. 5

Decisional

It is important to note how to reduce Cognitive Dissonance. First, individuals can change one or more of the attitudes, behavior, beliefs etc. so as to make the relationship between the two elements a consonant one. When one of the dissonant elements is a behavior, the individual can change or eliminate the behavior. However, this mode of dissonance reduction frequently presents problems for people, as it is often difficult for people to change well-learned behavioral responses (e.g. giving up smoking).

A second (cognitive) method of reducing dissonance is to acquire new information that outweighs the dissonant beliefs. For example, thinking smoking causes lung cancer will cause dissonance if a person smokes. However, new information such as “research has not proved definitely that smoking causes lung cancer” may reduce the dissonance.

A third way to reduce dissonance is to reduce the importance of the cognitions (i.e. beliefs, attitudes). A person could convince themselves that it is better to “live for today” than to “save for tomorrow.” In other words, he could tell himself that a short life filled with smoking and sensual pleasures is better than a long life devoid of such joys. In this way, he would be decreasing the importance of the dissonant cognition (smoking is bad for one’s health).

Notice that dissonance theory does not state that these modes of dissonance reduction will actually work, only that individuals who are in a state of cognitive dissonance will take steps to reduce the extent of their dissonance. One of the points that dissonance theorists are fond of making is that people will go to all sorts of lengths to reduce dissonance.

It is important to understand cognitive dissonance and how to manage it in the learning process. We discuss some of these issues for example when we talk about “Why We Buy”? in my Professional Selling Class – I found some good information on this area when I researched this topic.

“Existing literature suggests that three main conditions exist for arousal of dissonance in purchases: the decision involved in the purchase must be important, such as involvement of a lot of money or psychological cost and be personally relevant to the consumer, the consumer has freedom in selecting among the alternatives, and finally, the decision involvement must be irreversible.[39]

A study performed by Lindsay Mallikin shows that when consumers experience an unexpected price encounter, they adopt three methods to reduce dissonance:[40] Consumers may employ a strategy of constant information, they may have a change in attitude, or they may engage in trivialization. Consumers employ the strategy of constant information by engaging in bias and searching for information that supports their prior beliefs. Consumers might search for information about other retailers and substitute products consistent with their belief states. Alternatively, consumers may show change in attitude such as reevaluating price in relation to external reference prices or associating high or low prices with quality. Lastly, trivialization may occur and the importance of the elements of the dissonant relationship is reduced; consumers tend to trivialize importance of money, and thus of shopping around, saving, and receiving a better deal.

Cognitive dissonance is also useful to explain and manage post-purchase concerns. A consumer who feels an alternate purchase would have been better will likely not buy the product again. To counter this, marketers have to convince buyers constantly that the product satisfies their need and thereby helps reduce their cognitive dissonance, ensuring repurchase of the same brand in the future.  An example of post-purchase dissonance resolution used in a client relation is a salesperson congratulating his buyer on “having made the right choice”. 2

Cognitive dissonance has been associated with left frontal activity in the cortex (Harmon-Jones, 1999 and Harmon-Jones and Harmon-Jones, 2002). In addition, the left frontal cortex has been associated with anger, with anger supporting a motivational purpose behind its anger showing the left frontal activity being active. Together, cognitive dissonance and anger are supported with the motivational directional model. Approach motivation is associated with the left frontal cortex when it can be detected that a person may able to take control of a situation that may have made them angry. Conversely, if a person does not have control of changing the situation, then there is no motivation involved and other emotions may arise 2.[59][67][68]

The overall strength of the dissonance can also be influenced by several factors. 

  • Cognitions that are more personal, such as beliefs about the self, tend to result in greater dissonance.
  • The importance of the cognitions also plays a role. Things that involve beliefs that are highly valued typically result in stronger dissonance.
  • The ratio between dissonant thoughts and consonant thoughts can also play a role in how strong the feelings of dissonance are.
  • The greater the strength of the dissonance, the more pressure there is to relieve the feelings of discomfort.

Cognitive dissonance plays a role in many value judgments, decisions, and evaluations. 3 Becoming aware of how conflicting beliefs impact the decision-making process is a great way to improve your ability to make faster and more accurate choices and plays an important role in curriculum development and teaching.

References

  1. http://www.simplypsychology.org/cognitive-dissonance.html
  2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitive_dissonance
  3. https://www.verywell.com/what-is-cognitive-dissonance-2795012
  4. https://www.sciencedaily.com/terms/cognitive_dissonance.htm
  5. http://jonathanyue1.blogspot.qa/2013/03/cognitive-dissonance-is-used-in.html

Long Beach 1994

Long Beach, Vancouver Island 1994

Reflective Writing #3 – Learning Styles

PDIP 3210 Curriculum Development

September 24th 2016

 PIDP 3210 Curriculum Development – Course Outcomes

  1. Discern and articulate the need(s) driving the development or revision of a course, workshop or learning event.
  2. Select, use, and justify appropriate strategies and methodologies for developing a course.
  3. Develop or modify a course or workshop.
  4. Determine, select, and use adult learning activities and experiences.
  5. Develop course curriculum documents.
  6. Align curriculum, instruction, and evaluation.
  7. Analyze curriculum design processes and outcomes.
  8. Use professional and respectful communication skills.

In class we discussed learning styles. I did some research on this to understand the styles we discussed in PIDP 3100 Foundations.

Learning theories provide a pedagogical/andragogical basis for understanding how our students learn. As McLeod notes, “Each theoretical perspective offers benefits to designers but the perspectives must be taken into context depending upon the situation, performance goal(s), and learners. And since the context in which the learning takes place can be dynamic and multi-dimensional, some combination of the three learning theories and perhaps others should be considered and incorporated into the instructional design process to provide optimal learning.” 1

The theory that I chose to discuss in detail is Constructivism. I think it is more challenging to take on this role as an educator as it requires more time and preparation to be successful. However, I do believe it the most interesting area of learning theory and I have learned a lot about it by reading and compiling the information here.

 I had written on Constructivism previously in PIDP 3100 as noted.

Constructivism as a paradigm or worldview posits that learning is an active, constructive process. The learner is an information constructor. People actively construct or create their own subjective representations of objective reality. New information is linked to prior knowledge; thus mental representations are subjective. 1

Originators and important contributors include: Lev Vygotsky, Jean Piaget, John Dewey, Vico, Rorty, Bruner, Seymour Papert, Merrill

Keywords: Learning as experience, activity and dialogical process; Problem Based Learning (PBL); Anchored instruction; Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD); cognitive apprenticeship (scaffolding); inquiry and discovery learning.

Constructivist ideas have been used to inform adult education. Where pedagogy applies to the education of children, adults educators often speak instead of andragogy. Methods must take account of differences in learning, due to the fact that adults have many more experiences and previously existing neurological structures. 2

Approaches based on constructivism stress the importance of mechanisms for mutual planning, diagnosis of learner needs and interests, cooperative learning climate, sequential activities for achieving the objectives, formulation of learning objectives based on the diagnosed needs and interests.

Involvement of the learner in the process, personal relevance of the content, and deeper understanding of underlying concepts are some of the intersections between emphases in constructivism and adult learning principles. 2

Objective

Constructivism assumes that all knowledge is constructed from the learner’s previous knowledge, regardless of how one is taught. Thus, even listening to a lecture involves active attempts to construct new knowledge. 3

Social constructivisms or socioculturalism encourages the learner to arrive at his or her version of the truth, influenced by his or her background, culture or embedded worldview. Historical developments and symbol systems, such as language, logic, and mathematical systems, are inherited by the learner as a member of a particular culture and these are learned throughout the learner’s life. This also stresses the importance of the nature of the learner’s social interaction with knowledgeable members of the society. Without the social interaction with other more knowledgeable people, it is impossible to acquire social meaning of important symbol systems and learn how to utilize them. Young children develop their thinking abilities by interacting with other children, adults and the physical world. From the social constructivist viewpoint, it is thus important to take into account the background and culture of the learner throughout the learning process, as this background also helps to shape the knowledge and truth that the learner creates, discovers and attains in the learning process (Wertsch 1997). 3

Vygotsky’s theory is one of the foundations of constructivism. It asserts three major themes:

Major themes:

  1. Social interaction plays a fundamental role in the process of cognitive development. In contrast to Jean Piaget’s understanding of child development (in which development necessarily precedes learning), Vygotsky felt social learning precedes development. He states: “Every function in the child’s cultural development appears twice: first, on the social level, and later, on the individual level; first, between people (interpsychological) and then inside the child (intrapsychological).” (Vygotsky, 1978).
  2. The More Knowledgeable Other (MKO). The MKO refers to anyone who has a better understanding or a higher ability level than the learner, with respect to a particular task, process, or concept. The MKO is normally thought of as being a teacher, coach, or older adult, but the MKO could also be peers, a younger person, or even computers.
  3. The Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD). The ZPD is the distance between a student’s ability to perform a task under adult guidance and/or with peer collaboration and the student’s ability solving the problem independently. According to Vygotsky, learning occurred in this zone.

Vygotsky focused on the connections between people and the sociocultural context in which they act and interact in shared experiences (Crawford, 1996). According to Vygotsky, humans use tools that develop from a culture, such as speech and writing, to mediate their social environments. Initially children develop these tools to serve solely as social functions, ways to communicate needs. Vygotsky believed that the internalization of these tools led to higher thinking skills. 3   

Reflective

Learning is an active process in which learners construct new ideas or concepts based upon their current/past knowledge, social interactions, and motivation affect the construction.

Constructivism promotes a more open-ended learning experience where the methods and results of learning are not easily measured and may not be the same for each learner. Our classroom is very diverse with different ways of learning as well as other skills relating to language, cognitive reasoning, culture issues and special needs which need to be recognized by the teacher.

Interpretive

As opposed to an objective approach to learning, constructivism is more

open-ended in expectation where the results and even the methods of learning themselves are not easily measured and may not be consistent with each learner.

  • Case-Based Learning
  • Authentic situations
  • Multiple cases to build cognitive flexibility
  • Social interactions, collaborations
  • Assessment of activity
  • Shift teachers role to scaffolding, modeling, coaching of learners
  • Experiences are critical
  • Shift from behavioral objectives to activity goals
  • Advance organizers 3

Decisional

I like the theory of constructivism because Constructivism focuses on how learners construct their own meaning.  They ask questions, develop answers and interact and interpret the environment.  By doing these things, they incorporate new knowledge with prior knowledge to create new meanings and absolutely satisfy the finding of Vygotsky’s Social Development Theory

(There are some cultural challenges to this however and they must be balanced with other theories as men and women rarely work together on project in class and choose their own groups as opposed to the instructor).

  1. Multiple perspectives and representations of concepts and content are presented and encouraged.
  2. Goals and objectives are derived by the student or in negotiation with the teacher or system.
  3. Teachers serve in the role of guides, monitors, coaches, tutors and facilitators.
  4. Activities, opportunities, tools and environments are provided to encourage metacognition, self-analysis -regulation, -reflection & -awareness.
  5. The student plays a central role in mediating and controlling learning.
  6. Learning situations, environments, skills, content and tasks are relevant, realistic, authentic and represent the natural complexities of the ‘real world’.
  7. Primary sources of data are used in order to ensure authenticity and real-world complexity.
  8. Knowledge construction and not reproduction is emphasized.
  9. This construction takes place in individual contexts and through social negotiation, collaboration and experience.
  10. The learner’s previous knowledge constructions, beliefs and attitudes are considered in the knowledge construction process.
  11. Problem-solving, higher-order thinking skills and deep understanding are emphasized.
  12. Errors provide the opportunity for insight into students’ previous knowledge constructions.
  13. Exploration is a favored approach in order to encourage students to seek knowledge independently and to manage the pursuit of their goals.
  14. Learners are provided with the opportunity for apprenticeship learning in which there is an increasing complexity of tasks, skills and knowledge acquisition.
  15. Knowledge complexity is reflected in an emphasis on conceptual interrelatedness and interdisciplinary learning.
  16. Collaborative and cooperative learning are favored in order to expose the learner to alternative viewpoints.
  17. Scaffolding is facilitated to help students perform just beyond the limits of their ability.
  18. Assessment is authentic and interwoven with teaching. 3

First principle – Give yourself time.  Second principle-discussion.  Third principle-look for connections. The building of knowledge is the goal.  Decrease amount of teaching and increase student projects.

Examples for my classroom include

  1. Case Studies – utilizing these and group project to develop learning skills
  2. Projects – time in class for projects – time to work their way through an AON – Activity on Node (see below) together in Project Management that deals with the sequences of a project and the resources required and also to do a simple calculation on which project is best for your company based on Highest and Lowest needs. Project Based Learning proved to be most effective this semester and the quality increased at least 10 percent and their understanding the Microsoft Project Management Software program increased as well.
  • Modeling
  • Collaborative Learning – Project Based
  • Coaching – an important role for me
  • Scaffolding
  • Problem-Based Learning – working together to solve the AON puzzle
  • Authentic Learning – keeping the discussion real – real projects unfolding in Doha
  • Anchored Instruction – parameters set by me the instructor

Furthermore, I always try to keep Blooms Taxonomy in mind and the focus on evaluation and critical thinking skills. In writing learning objectives, it is helpful to keep in mind the level of critical thinking you want students to achieve.  General interactive media elements (i.e. deliver/check using video, audio, graphics, text, animation) mainly deal with the three lower levels (knowledge, comprehension, and application). Advanced aspects of 3D animations involve work at the higher levels requiring learners to combine known solutions in, for the learner, new ways—simulating real-world practice of task-based skills. In these cases, the virtual tool can set up hypothetical situations, pose problems, allow for experimentation and development and problem-solving skills. Learning objectives need to reflect these levels through the use of appropriate verbs. 4

aon-diagram

Field Trips and or videos – media, to get the learning “out of the classroom”

Because the learner is able to interpret multiple realities, the learner is better able to deal with real life situations. If learners can problem solve, they may better apply their existing knowledge to a novel situation. However, there are weaknesses as well that the curriculum developer needs to understand – In a situation where conformity is essential divergent thinking and action may cause problems. 3

In summary Constructivism is seen by educational theorists as a paradigm or worldview posits that learning is an active, constructive process. The learner is an information constructor. People actively construct or create their own subjective representations of objective reality. New information is linked to prior knowledge; thus mental representations are subjective. Using this technique in the class is seen as a very effective way of engaging learners and achieving positive results. 3, 4

References

  1. http://teachinglearningresources.pbworks.com/w/page/19919565/Learning%20Theories
  2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constructivism_(philosophy_of_education)
  3. http://teachinglearningresources.pbworks.com/w/page/19919565/Learning%20Theories
  4. PIDP3100 – Personal Work – Learning Styles – Reflective Journal

IMG_20150428_060021

PDIP 3210 Curriculum Development

September 24th 2016

The following discussion refers to the Dacum Chart that was developed as part of the requirements for the course PIDP 3210 and focuses a competency based education focus. Please refer to the picture of the Dacum Chart.

The course that I focused on is called Professional Selling and there has been considerable work in developing the course since 1992.

DATE DEVELOPED: October 28, 1992

DATE REVIEWED:  March 2011

 REVISION NUMBER: 3  

DATE REVISED:   October 2010

The curriculum developers who worked on this laid out the following Course Outcomes:

COURSE OUTCOMES:

 Upon successful completion of this course the student will be able to:

  1. Apply the foundations and concepts of professional selling to make a sales presentation demonstrating successful selling techniques
  2. Distinguish between the various selling environments and recommend various selling techniques.
  3. Identify and describe the importance of psychology in the selling environment
  4. Integrate social networking into the development of a prospecting network

MAJOR TOPICS:

 1.0 Introduction to Professional Selling 

2.0 Retailing 

3.0 The Psychology of Selling  

4.0 Relationship Building  

5.0 Sales Knowledge  

6.0 Prospecting and Pre-approach  

7.0 Approach 

8.0 Sales Presentations and Objections

9.0 Closing and Follow-up Procedures

As part of our task in looking at this original course we were tasked to look at this Course Outline with a critical eye to ensure that the terminology that was being used, referred to the revised Bloom’s Taxonomy and the 6 levels of hierarchy:

  • remember (was knowledge)
  • understand (was comprehension)
  • apply (was application)
  • analyze (was analysis)
  • evaluate (was evaluation)
  • create (was synthesis)

Second, the last two categories have been reversed, putting create (synthesis) as the most complex level.1

This was helpful as a framework to help look at the words that were chosen as we looked at the Sample Action Verbs for Stating those Objectives in the three different domains – Cognitive – Thinking and Problem Solving – Affective – Beliefs, Values and Attitudes – and finally Psychomotor Domain – Physical skills.  2

As I started to work on my Dacum, I began to realize several things that I will address in this discussion.

  1. General comments regarding the Course Outline
  2. Specific Comments regarding the Course Line
  3. Suggested improvements.

First all some general comments regarding the Professional Selling Course Outline.

The Course Outline has been around since 1992 as the Professional Selling is a key 2nd year course required of all marketing students. It has been taught for over 24 years in Newfoundland and over 14 years here in Qatar which probably means the course has been taught over 400 times. (24 years in Newfoundland at 17 campuses – at least once per year per campus is 408 times / In Qatar the course is taught 3 times a year so about 36 times in Qatar). The course and textbook have not changed much from what I could find out. The course uses one of the best textbook by Charles Futrell

“Fundamentals of Selling, 13e trains readers on a detailed, yet broad, step-by-step selling process that is universal in nature. Numerous sales personnel in the industry today have commented on how this market-leading textbook reflects what they do on sales calls with prospects and customers. The goal of Fundamentals of Selling has always been to demonstrate to students the order of steps within the selling process; provide numerous examples of what should be in each step; and show how the steps within the selling process interact with one another. Combined with up-to-date content and a strong ethical focus, the 13th edition of Fundamentals of Selling teaches sales the way a mentor would: with a strong, practical focus that puts the customer first.”3

It is probably the most highly regarded academic Selling Textbook in the world in my opinion. There are some very good books on selling such as Brian Tracy and Zig Ziglar 4 but for educational instruction this is a fantastic book.  Students are provided with an electronic copy and all the PowerPoints are provided in D2L here in Qatar. There are practice web site multiple choice and quizzes etc. So there are very good resources available, and there has been considerable work put in to the Course Outline over the years by numerous people so there is a solid baseline to start. So I had a good feeling that I was not starting from scratch with my Dacum while still realizing there is always room for improvement.

Specific comments on the Course Outline. One of the first things I noticed when I started to look at each of the verbs used for the Learning Objectives (see below) they were consistent with those suggested in the book pages 28 – 30 2. Words such as Define (Remember), Discuss (Apply), Develop (Create) were consistent with what was discussed in the book. I calculated for each row the Bloom’s Taxonomy:

 

Remember

Understand

Apply

Analyze

Evaluate

Create

TOTAL

1.0

2

2

3

       

2.0

3

1

         

3.0

 

4

1

       

4.0

2

1

 

1

1

   

5.0

2

 

1

       

6.0

2

2

2

1

     

7.0

1

1

2

       

8.0

1

 

1

 

1

1

 

9.0

3

1

2

   

1

 
 

16

12

12

2

2

2

46

  • remember (was knowledge)                                       16
  • understand (was comprehension)                            12
  • apply (was application)                                                  12
  • analyze (was analysis)                                                    2
  • evaluate (was evaluation)                                             2
  • create (was synthesis)                                                    2

Overall a good balance of verbs for where the course is in the program (generally taken in Year 2 as there 3 Prerequisites – CM1241 – Business Communications II      MR2100 – Marketing II       CM2200 – Oral Communications). It satisfies the idea of Apply, Distinguish, Integrate and Identify and Describe as an actionable item in the Course Outline. There were some double words such as List and describe so I tried to simplify this in my final draft.

Suggested improvements. Some of the changes I made to the Course Outline after looking at the Dacum were the following.

  • I simplified the wording – eliminating the double wording where possible.
  • I revised Section 2.0 on Retailing (we have a course on this and there was duplication and it needed to be simplified). I have struggled with the material in this section in the past.
  • When I presented my Dacum to my colleagues Patsy and Paul they had some excellent observations that I noted. A) It was very Cognitive heavy – “Peter is there room for Affective and Psychomotor skills?” I replied that the Sales Presentation which is worth 40% – (see below) is very hands on – they have to do a sales presentation which is recorded for review and analysis. They both like that answer. B) When we discussed the Affective I realized that there is a huge opportunity for improvement to discuss things like Professionalism and Ethics which are so important. Dr. Charles Futrell really talks a lot about this. I added another deliverable – Learning Objective called Professional Selling and Ethics – 10.0 and I found some videos on the topic as well to integrate into the course material. Placing others before yourself and how wrong that is – look after your customers and “don’t sell a Camaro to your grandmother”! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bSSmS1VIWRA
  • I looked closely at the Dacum and the Course Evaluation and kept the overall numbering system but broke it down in more detail with more deliverables such as a reflective journal which I think will help them think more about their beliefs, attitudes and the idea of ethics in sales. Ethics and Professional and the Golden Rule of Selling is critical to get across to the students. How you treat the customer is critical. I also added a new chart that maps the Learning Objectives with the Assessments.                                                                                                 Assessments

Course Outcomes

1

Lab

2

Lab

3

Lab

4

Lab

5

Presentation

6

Case

7

Midterm

8

Final Exam

 

5%

5%

5%

5%

20%

10%

20%

30%

1.     Apply the foundations and concepts of professional selling to make a sales presentation demonstrating successful selling techniques

               

2.    Distinguish between the various selling environments and recommend various selling techniques.

               

3.    Identify and describe the importance of psychology in the selling environment

               

4.    Integrate social networking into the development of a prospecting network

               
  • New ideas for the materials happened as a result of the course. Activities and new videos were found that will be integrated into the course. The Secret of Persuasion is quite good – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cFdCzN7RYbw .
  • Professional Attitude – The Assessment Case 10% will now be an in-class case on Ethics and Professionalism in Professional Selling.
  • New Course Outline – integrates all these learnings. Click Here for New Course Outline.
  • New Evaluation – more emphasis on the Individual in Presentation – Reflective Journal

 RECOMMENDED EVALUATION:

                           #     Assessment                             LO    %

Sales simulations/presentations

1

Lab 1 – Product(s) and Company B2B Lab – Group 2.5% – Individual Reflective Journal #1 2.5%

LO1-LO4

5%

2

Lab 2 – Price – Group 2.5% – Individual Reflective Journal #2 2.5%

LO5

5%

3

Lab 3 – Sell (FAB)  – Group 2.5% – Individual Reflective Journal #3 2.5%

LO3 – LO5

5%

4

Lab 4 – Closing – Group 2.5% – Individual Reflective Journal #4 2.5%

LO9

5%

5

Presentation

 

LO1-L10

20%

Case Analysis/In class analysis

6

Applying your Learning – In Class Case Analysis

LO3-LO7

10%

Exams:

7

Midterm

LO1-LO7

20%

8

Final – All – Chapters 1,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14

LO1-L10

30%

Total

 

 

 

100%

In conclusion, there were lots of learnings in the course and it was most enjoyable. The Dacum exercise was most useful. I feel that the Cognitive and Affective components are more in focus now and I feel that it is a better course outline with better activities (Lesson Plan exercise was excellent).

References

  1. PIDP 3210 Course Manual P. 25 http://www1.udel.edu/educ/gottfredson/451/revisedbloom.html
  2. PIDP 3210 Course Manual P. 28 – 30
  3. Amazon – The Fundamentals of Selling 13th Edition https://www.amazon.com/Fundamentals-Selling-Customers-through-Service/dp/0077861019/ref=dp_ob_title_bk
  4. Best Sales Books of All Time http://www.inc.com/geoffrey-james/top-10-sales-books-of-all-time.html
  5. Charles Futrell – Linked In – https://www.linkedin.com/in/charles-futrell-367bbb6
  6. Learning to Listen – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eIho2S0ZahI
  7. Tom Hopkins – The Art of Selling https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vZa29V2L-U4

================================================================

Alberta December Dusk 3

Learning Objectives – Professional Selling – Before the Course

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:

1.0 Introduction to Professional Selling

1.1 Define professional selling 

1.2 Discuss and distinguish between the various types of sales professions 

1.3 Identify and explain the characteristics of a salesperson that are needed for success in sales 

1.4 Describe the importance of personal selling 

1.5 List and explain the steps of the sales process  

1.6 Explain the sales component of a marketing plan 

1.7 Provide an overview of a professional sales association and its membership    requirements

2.0 Retailing 

  2.1 Define retailing  

2.1.1 Explain the retail process 

 2.2 Distinguish between business and consumer products and markets  

2.3 Identify and list the steps business purchasing agents use in buying decisions  

2.4 Distinguish between services and nonprofit selling 

3.0 The Psychology of Selling  

 3.1 List and explain the various influences on buyer behavior  

3.2 Define and explain buyer’s perception  

3.3 Distinguish between consumer and business decision making  

3.4 List and distinguish between the personal, psychological, and social factors that influence the consumer’s buying behavior  

3.5 Explain how buyers move through the decision making process 

4.0 Relationship Building 

 4.1 Define communication   

4.1.1 Identify and explain the components of the communications model

 4.2 Discuss the importance of nonverbal communication in selling   

4.2.1 Identify the components of nonverbal communication 

 4.3 Analyze various barriers to sales communication  

4.4 Critique persuasive communication as a selling tool  

4.5 Define social networking  

4.5.1 Discuss the role of social networking in developing a prospecting network

5.0 Sales Knowledge 

  5.1 Define and discuss the importance of knowledge 

5.1.1 Distinguish between the various knowledge types including customers, company, product, and retailers

5.1.2 Compare and contrast how knowledge is presented during sales presentations (industry, competition, and economy)

 5.2 Distinguish between the various advertising aids used by salespeople    5.3 Discuss how technology has changed personal selling 

6.0 Prospecting and Pre-approach 

6.1 Define prospecting  

6.2 List and discuss the sales steps before sales presentations  

6.3 Compare and contrast the various prospecting methods used in sales  

6.4 Identify and examine the components of the referral cycle 

6.5 Distinguish among the strategies used for customer sales planning     

6.6 List and examine the steps in pre-approach planning 

6.7 List the components of and develop a customer profile 

7.0 Approach 

7.1 Define and distinguish between the different sales approaches  

7.2 Demonstrate the importance of approach with regards to sales  

7.3 List and distinguish between the various types of questions used in sales approaches  

7.3.1 Formulate questions to be used in the sales approach

 7.4 Identify and apply the stages of negotiation

8.0 Sales Presentations and Objections

8.1 List and describe the components of the sales presentation  

8.1.1 Identify and analyze examples of sales difficulties   

8.1.2 List and describe the components of the sales presentation mix 

8.2 Compare and contrast the various sales tools used in selling 

8.3 Define sales objections

8.3.1 List and distinguish between the various sales objections

8.3.2 Identify and assess the procedures for effective objection handling

 8.4 Develop and deliver a sales presentation 

 9.0 Closing and Follow-up Procedures 

  9.1 Define and discuss closing the sale  

9.1.1 List and distinguish between the various buying signals

9.2 List and distinguish between the various closing techniques 

9.3 Prepare and conduct selling closing techniques  

9.4 Define and discuss follow-up 

9.5 Distinguish between satisfaction and retention  

9.6 Describe how follow up can increase sales 

9.7 List and discuss the steps to increase existing sales   9.8 Prepare and conduct follow-up techniques 

EVALUATION: 

 Sales simulations /presentations             40%

Case analysis                                                     10% 

Midterm exam                                                  20%

 Final exam                                                         30% 

This is a picture of the complete Dacum for Professional Selling. This is a second year course with prerequisites. I calculated the various stages of Bloom’s Taxonomy.

Create 2 Evaluate 2 Analyze 2 Apply 12 Understand 16 Remember 16

dacum-chart-professional-selling-peter-robertson-sept-2016

Summary of Notes – Tom Hopkins video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vZa29V2L-U4

Summary notes: 1) Have to believe in what you do – be passionate and excite people about your product. Would you buy what you sell? 2) Make them say it – if it comes from you then its not true but if it comes from them then it must be true. You would like to have a great product, don’t you? They have to say yes! 3) Give them a choice – would you like me to call you early or would you prefer a later call? As I wouldn’t want to disturb you. They will be forced to choose. 4) The porcupine: Customer says, do you have x? You would say, would you like x? If they answer yes you’ve essentially closed. 5) Don’t come across as a salesman, its not about you! Come across as an advisor. Give the customer confidence by providing them with insight. They would trust you and respect you for being knowledgeable and helpful. 6) Show them the value in the product so that they trust that they aren’t wasting money on a product they don’t need. 7) Show empathy for clients. Put yourself in their shoes. (Forgot the poem demonstration). 8) Never use these words: Cost or Price (result: it’s too much/ too high), down payment (brings forth a sense of premature commitment) initial investment/payment is a better word, monthly payment should be substituted by monthly investment or amount which gives a client a sense that their gaining something rather than losing something. Contract, gives people a sense of uneasiness. Don’t call it a contract, call it paperwork or form. Buy, don’t say it! Substitute it with own as it gives the buyer a sense of ownership and pride associated with owning something. Get them INVOLVED and help them ACQUIRE. Deal, use transaction or opportunity instead. Sign, use ‘Ok it’, approve it or authorize it or endorse it. 9) What are you doing when your closing a deal? Helping a client with rationalizing the decision they want to make, help them head off procrastination, help them with their fear of being sold and finally help them overcome indecision. 10) ‘I want to think it over’, smile and say you wouldn’t want to spend all this time just to put off your decision would you? Now what about this is making you hesitant? Well the price. By how much? This is where you make what called the ‘reduction to the ridiculous’. You divide the amount they give you to an annual number then monthly, weekly, daily and so on. Tell them that you would be paying just an additional cent amount daily to get your dream product? Is that too much to ask for your satisfaction? That the art of closing.

Here are the files – Lesson Plans – Dacum – PowerPoint – Course Outline

pidp-3210-curriculum-development-mr1600-peter-robertson-lesson-plan-professional-selling-f2016-1

pidp-3210-curriculum-development-ep2150-peter-robertson-lesson-plan-2-entreprenurship-f2016-1

ep2150-ch-01-foundations-of-entrepreneurship-f16-pr-1

mr-1600-course-outline-fall-2016-v2.0-peter-robertson-1

dacum-chart-professional-selling-peter-robertson-sept-2016

ep2150-ch-01-foundations-of-entrepreneurship-f16-pr-1

Stay Positive

 

Kamala Harris

PIDP 3220 Delivery of Instruction

The Delivery of Instruction course provides participants with the opportunity to prepare, deliver and debrief three short (10 min.) mini-lessons with the rest of the class. Participants are encouraged to select one lesson from each of the three domains of learning (cognitive, affective, psychomotor). They are expected to use a variety of techniques while they present content and processes in a clear, enthusiastic and interactive manner. They will provide useful feedback to other course participants. The instructor will critique each lesson as well. Participants will then reflect critically on each lesson they taught and prepare a written reflective report describing their progress and learning during the course. This particular approach has been proven to be highly effective in increasing instructional skills in adult educators.

This was done at CNAQ – We got credit for completing the Instructional Skills Workshop.

Paulo 2

BOPPPS – Fit A Bike – Peter Robertson

ISW Bike Fitting by Peter Robertson

Self Assessment – Adjustments to Make Your Bike Fit You

ISW Bike Fitting by Peter Robertson

BOPPPS – Waze – Peter Robertson

ISW Waze by Peter Robertson

Psychology of Buying – PR

BOPPPS – Steve Jobs – Peter Robertson

ISW Lesson 3 Steve Jobs

Leadership vs Management

I also did ISW 2.0

Comic Strip 2

Lesson Plan – Canva

Lesson Plan – Wordsearch

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PIDP 3230 Evaluation of Learning

The Evaluation of Learning course  examines the practices that support the assessment and  evaluation strategies used in education and training. The course provides the knowledge and skills to design and implement a comprehensive strategy for obtaining information that is used to inform learners of their progress and guide them to successful completion. The course enables the participants to plan, construct and use assessment instruments that are appropriate and ethical to their teaching  context.

 

The primary instructional strategies for the course are in-class workshops, group work, independent self-directed research and reflective journaling.            

Evaluation Plan for Formal Assessment Strategies

PR2170 – Project Management

 

#

Evaluation/Assignment Name

Value%

1

Midterm Exam

20%

2

Assignments – quizzes, cases, participation etc.

10%

3

Edutainment

10%

4

Term project

30%

5

Final Examination

30%

 

Course Outcomes / Goals / Assignments

Assignments

   

1

2

3

4

5

   

1

Develop an RFP (Request for Proposal) for a Project or a Project of your choosing (discuss and confirm with your instructor)

             

2

Identify and analyze sources of risk associated with a project

             

3

Use project management software to manage a project

             

4

Describe and discuss key elements of project management including project scope, time, cost and quality management, project communications and team building

 

             

Major Topics:                            

1.0       Introduction to Project Management – Chapter 1,2,3,4,6

2.0       Risk Analysis – Chapter 7

3.0       Project Scope Management – Chapter 5

4.0       Managing Time, Cost and Quality – Chapter 8,9,10,11,12,13

5.0       Project Management Software – Microsoft Project

6.0       Project Communications and Team Building – Chapter 4,6

7.0       Project Termination – Chapter 14

Description of Course

 COURSE DESCRIPTION:

The purpose of this course is to learn various techniques used to ensure that a project is completed on time, within budget, and with high quality. The student will explore various aspects of project management, such as scope, time, cost, quality and communications and will use project management software to manage a project.

  1. Credit Course CREDIT VALUE: Three (3)
  2. COURSE HOURS PER WEEK: Three (3) LAB HOURS PER WEEK: Zero – 13 weeks – 39 hours
  3. Address the impact the key shareholders have on the course

Student

The student will be taught an introductory level the Project Management course. The purpose of the course is to learn various techniques used to ensure that a project is completed on time, within budget, and with high quality. The student will explore various aspects of project management, such as scope, time, cost, quality and communications and will use project management software to manage a project. Students are expected to attend class and participate in the classroom engagement as well as follow the course materials presented and also on D2L our learning management system. Students are responsible for achieving the course outcomes.

Instructor

Responsible for delivering the course outcomes, measuring student performance and class management. I am the key instructor of Project Management in the School of Business Studies and as a subject matter expert who has managed numerous projects in industry in North America and around the world. I try and bring my experience and real-world knowledge into the classroom to make the class interesting, dynamic and ensuring continuous improvement. I have been teaching project management for over 8 years now. I have just rewritten the course as we had a change of book from the author Jeff Pinto to Eric Larsen. I have most recently developed the new course as well which will have more hours of instruction based on industry feedback of their interest in Project Management and the desire for the students to have the skill set to perform Project Management in the workforce.

Institution

Responsible for the hiring of an experienced instructor with industry experience and a background in teaching Project Management at the College and University level for an Accredited Technical College to ensure that the standards of education are maintained. The instructor is monitored by the institution through classroom observations and student evaluations on a regular basis. Accredited bodies are the Province of Newfoundland and Labrador and the ACBSP. The Institution monitors the course materials through D2L and also the development of the course from the PIRS document.

 What type of grading system will be used?

Rubrics are used for all assignment and a percentage grade is converted into a letter grade. Percentages are rounded up or down depending on where they fall. 78 rounds to 80 – or A. 76 would round to 75 or B for example.

 Grading Break Down:

  • Midterm Exam: 20% Feb 5th 2019 or Feb 11th 2019 or Feb 18th 2019 Chapter 1,2,3,4,5,6 – Objectives 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0
  • Assignments: 10% – quizzes, cases, participation etc. Chapters – all
  • Edutainment 10% – edutainment Chapters – all – Objectives – all
  • Term Project: 30% – Chapters all plus Microsoft Project – Objective 5
  • Final Examination: 30% – Chapters – all Objectives – All

This course is supplementary eligible. (Student can rewrite for improved grade)

  1. The amount of time spent on formal assessment and assessment strategies is the following

#

Evaluation/Assignment Name

Minutes

1

Midterm Exam – 20%

90

2

Assignments – quizzes, cases, participation etc. (15 minutes x 13 weeks) – 10%

195

3

Edutainment (20 minutes per week x 13 weeks) – 10%

260

4

Term project (100 minutes per week)

1300

5

Final Examination

180

 What is the purpose of evaluation in your course? The purpose is to ensure that the students are meeting the course outcomes and evaluation standards that are both formative and summative and also cognitive and authentic. When we look at the definition on Evaluation in the Art of Evaluation, we find that “Evaluation is the systematic collection and analysis of data needed to make decisions, a process in which most well – run programs engage from the outset.” 2 (Art of Evaluation P. 3)

 For each formal assessment strategy on the Evaluation Plan, indicate what claims of validity you can make.

#

Evaluation/Assignment Name

Validity

1

Midterm Exam – 20%

Questions and testing items are carefully examined to ensure validity – Publisher test banks, colleagues, experience

2

Assignments – quizzes, cases, participation etc. (15 minutes x 13 weeks) – 10%

Validity ….tested for

3

Edutainment (20 minutes per week x 13 weeks) – 10%

This is really just a way for the student to

4

Term project (100 minutes per week)

Measured again levels of Validity and Course Outcomes

5

Final Examination

Questions and testing items are carefully examined to ensure validity – Publisher test banks, colleagues sign off on the final exam, experience

First of all Validity is a key concern as we discussed in the course and as we noted there are several key characteristics of validity. Are we measuring the right thing? making decisions that are appropriate?, is the test appropriate? and how confident are we with the results of this test? These are some of the key discussion that we had in the course and I will review them briefly here as these are some of the key questions we should have as educators when we are evaluating our students. (PIDP 3230 Evaluation of Learning Course Materials P. 31)       

Some of types of validity that the instructor needs to measure against include the idea of 1) process validity, 2) content validity, 3) predictive and 4) consequences validity 5) construct validity.

Process Validity

When discussing process validity, it is so important to be in clear when teaching to second language students, to ensure clear instructions, plain language etc. (PIDP 3230 Evaluation of Learning Course Materials P. 31)

Content Validity

When we are making our tests we need as instructors to ensure the content is appropriate and to ensure we have 1) asked the right questions 2) asked the right number of questions? 3) have we assessed in a way that correspond closely to how the topic was presented? 4) have we placed appropriate value on the assessment test and observations? (PIDP 3230 Evaluation of Learning Course Materials P. 32)

Predictive Validity

This is the extent to which the results of assessment indicate future performance, or coincide with other indicators of performance – does passing the test mean mastery?

Consequences Validity is the ability of the assessment to measure the intended knowledge, knowledge, skills, and attitudes without interference from the process itself

Construct Validity

The definition of this is a mental creation that describes qualities of human behavior. The degree that assessment actually measures quality determines construct validity. I.e. creativity, teamwork, professionalism, problem solving, self esteem etc. We as instructors need to ensure that our assessment really does measure the construct? Also will professionals or experts see the assessment as a true measurement? And finally if professionals who possess this construct were assessed, would they do well on your test? (PIDP 3230 Evaluation of Learning Course Materials P. 33-34)

For one formal assessment strategy found on your evaluation plan answer the following:

There are several interesting assessments above but I will choose the final exam 30% as it is summation of the course, it is highly examined

  1. Why did you pick this formal assessment strategy? Important to assess the students knowledge of the course outcomes…a summation
  2. Is it formative / summative assessment / strategy? Summative as it summarizes the entire course
  3. When will the strategy occur and how much time does it require – it occurs at the end of the semester and there is three hours provided for its completion?
  4. What outcomes / goals are reflected by the assessment strategy? As noted above the Final Exam will cover Objectives 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 6.0, 7.0
  5. Is it cognitive or authentic assessment? It is an authentic assessment

 Give examples of why and how you will apply “Assessment For/As Learning” in your class.

Assessment for learning is practiced in my classes where students are encouraged to be more active in their learning and the associated assessment tools are used to encourage this. Edutainment put them in the driver’s seat where they actually teach the class a small lesson from project management that interests them. What I want to do to create is self-regulated learners who can leave school able and confident to continue learning throughout their lives. We need to know at the outset of a unit of study where their students are in terms of their learning and then continually check on how they are progressing through strengthening the feedback they get from their learners. We have considerable dialogue and students are guided on what they are expected to learn and what quality work looks like, and will check to see where there are gaps in their learning and what can be done to fill them.

Select 2 informal strategies (Classroom Assessment Techniques) that you will be using and indicate what outcomes or goals they support and why they will support the learning of these outcomes or goals.

The two informal strategies that I selected for Project Management are Direct Paraphrasing (1 P.232) and Muddiest Point (1…..7 P. 154).

Direct Paraphrasing (1….23 P. 232) in its simplest form provides feedback on student’s ability to translate highly specialized information into simpler language that people can understand. It helps students to summarize their learning and restate concepts in their own words – not mine.

The Muddiest Point (1…..7 P. 154) is one of the simplest classroom assessment techniques. It is efficient and provides information quickly as to where the learners are with their learning. It is a great way to check in on what is least clear or most confusing regarding a topic in project management. Experience has taught that the Project Scope can be the most challenging as well as the Activity on Node or AON exercise. The learner quickly identifies what they don’t understand and asks the instructor for help.

Both of these informal assessment techniques will support the outcomes as noted where there are some difficult concepts to understand and be able to articulate in their words. These techniques will improve their ability to explain in their own words and they often are translating form their language to English to do this. This technique using index cards and discussions before lecturing will help improve, retention, writing and verbal skills.

References

1 Thomas, A. Angelo, K. Patricia Cross 2nd Edition 1993 Classroom Assessment Techniques – A Handbook for College Teachers Jossey Bass A Wiley Company Pages 232, 154

2 The Art of Evaluation Pages 2 -11

3 PIDP 3230 Evaluation of Learning Course Materials P. 31

Assignment #1 Evaluation Plan – Peter Robertson

Assignment 2 PIDP 3230 – Based on Final Exam PR2170 W19 Final Exam v1.3 April 2019 PIDP

SBS Examination Checklist – Fall 2018

PIDP3230 Assignment #3 -Authentic Assessment Instrument – 000389027

Peter RobertsonPIDP3230 Assignment #4 – 30 Profiles of…Informal – Peter Robertson

PIDP3230 Assignment #4 B – 23 Direct Paraphrasing – Informal – Peter Robertson  

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IMG_20150429_032040

Chinese Fishing Nets 3

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OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

Assignment #5

REFLECTIVE WRITING

“By three methods we may learn wisdom: First by reflection which is the noblest: Second by imitation, which is the easiest: and third by experience, which is the bitterest” – Confucius1

 

Peter Robertson | PIDP 3230 | May 2nd 2019

 

Reflect on your beliefs and how evaluation impacts adults (page 15-20 in The Art of Evaluation)

  1. Examining your own beliefs

There are numerous things to reflect on here and that made the course very interesting as I thought about my own teaching practice and philosophy of learning.

The question of most interest to me is “What are the essential things that learners must know and do at the end of the program? Should learners be helped to create their own knowledge, or to master the knowledge that you and others deliver to them?”

I think this is an interesting question and as noted it does depend on the situation, the individual, the material, the course etc. I think that in our situation dealing with a multi-cultural learning environment with students from over 30 countries who language is often not English, helping them to create their own language on the numerous topics that we teach them in the school of business is the most satisfying. I often say to them “this is not an English class; please ensure that you have shown me sufficient understanding of the topic in your words that I can assess your ability but of course I paraphrase it to – give me something to mark”. It is a combination of helping them create their own knowledge and mastering what I put before them through my assessments and classroom discussions and delivery.

I love to try and provide them with real life examples as I talk about the material in International Marketing or Project Management for example. I then try and put their experiences into words in the classroom so they can relate what I provided them with knowledge and enable them to put it in their context and their world.

I often share stories from my experiences, from the newspaper and try always to keep it real. When I reflect on this, I realize how often I do it, I always say “it’s in the newspaper or it is the book”, while ensure I avoid controversial subjects. Subjects that might be in the newspaper as well.

In this part of the world learning if often straight memorization and on the lower steps of Blooms Taxonomy and student are asked to list as opposed to describe and evaluate.

Often the learning comes from them linking what I teach them at the front of the classroom and through my assignments and assessments and them linking those things together in their own minds to ensure better alignment and understanding.

  1. Aligning Philosophy with Practice in Evaluation

Examining the checklist provided is very useful to ensure that there is alignment of learning and that the evaluation in the course is practical, valid and reliable. Am I teaching them what they need to know? I am I helping them tell their story?, am I asking the right questions in language they understand?, are they involved in the learning process or is it just me?, and is there alignment with my teaching beliefs?, and do my assessments reflect both my beliefs and some of the questions posed here in aligning philosophy with practice in evaluation?. When developing assessment instruments this are all very important topics to consider.

  1. Maintaining Trust and Positive Self-Esteem During Evaluation

This area relates to research on the “Characteristics of Helpful Evaluation” completed by Stephen Brookfield (1990)2 P.17 who is one of the guru’s of education research and he notes that the adult learner is a fragile soul and that the evaluator must be sensitive to their needs through the evaluation ensure a solid list of ten “to do” items. The list helps the evaluator ensure that they are catering to their “feelings” and providing an environment of learning which is something that I really focus on in my practice. I work hard to try and creative a trusting environment and ensure “understanding” at the end of each lesson. I want to ensure I am consistent and fair and patient and accessible to them. Making them feel good about themselves and their learning environment is critical to their learning process and mirrors my teaching philosophy.

  1. Reflecting on Your Own Learning and teaching Biography

I really believe in being fair and being trusting with my students to create a learning environment without fear that they can succeed in. I always like to try and check in with statements like “is everyone ok?”, “everyone feel good”? any questions about the last class etc. which they appreciate and respect. I give them my mobile phone number; my office hours and they know they can reach me quickly which takes lots of the fear of learning away. I work hard to create an environment of “you can trust me”, “I am here to help you” in my teaching philosophy.

 5. The Dilemma of Evaluating Other Adults

I have been teaching adults since 2003 when I taught Major Account Sales Strategy for the University of Alberta for the Faculty of Extension. I had graduated in 1997 from the Sales Citation and Bob Lipsett was my mentor and guru. When he moved to Prince Rupert, he got in touch with me and we met where he gave me some CD’s and printed materials and said “good luck kiddo – you will figure it out – just be yourself”.

The course was two days in length and there were lots of materials that I pushed my adult learners through. In the room were people I worked with at TELUS and veterans of sales for companies such as Alstom – the massive worldwide electrical company. It was a great way to start my teaching career and I learned a lot and created a fun environment of learning. I reflect on what I learned from Bob, and what I took to my practice and like the Confucius quote above I touched all three methods of wisdom. I appreciated Bob’s teaching methods and classroom philosophy of first; I will make you feel comfortable, then I will make you laugh and then I will teach you. Bob has retired to Montreal and our lives overlapped in Abu Dhabi for a few years. We also did our MBA’s at the same time graduating together. Bob is the reason I got into full time teaching of adults in the first place when I came from Chandigarh, India and visited Bob and his wife Cathy in 2009 and introduced me to my future employer in Abu Dhabi where I worked 2 years later.

Since that day in 2003 when I walked into a class of Adult Learners. I have taught for over 8 institutions, both online and in the classroom in four different countries. It has been an exciting experience and I continue to refine my craft. Many of my Adult Learners have become friends – I am still in touch with all my students from India – many who immigrated to Canada and stayed with one of them on my last trip to India. Most recently some of my very best students have become my business partners. I think what I have learned from my teaching career will help me in the next adventure.

Reflect on one of the Hot Potato topics (i.e. group grades, late assignments) or on the concepts of validity and reliability.

Objective

My hot potato topic would be Group Grades, Group Size, Group makeup – specifically where the group gets the same grade. I have two classes that are very much weighted on the delivery of a substantial 50-page report on the EP2250 Feasibility and the EP2200 Business Plan for a Business idea. The groups are suggested to be a maximum of four and recently this was dictated from outside the classroom that they have to be four or less. In the PIRS there is no mention of group size so in other campuses of CAN (there are 17 including CNAQ) – groups as big as 8 (eight) can be found. Also someone decided the groups should have an accountant, marketer and human resource major in them which resulted in chaos, different schedules, bad group dynamics and a mess that the instructors had to clean up. (Getting it right in September because the groups work together until April.) Adding two parameters made a huge mess – as schedules did not work out, students were not with their friends, male/female group issues, cultural clashes (Algerians and Palestinians don’t get along – who knew?) etc. – an absolute mess.

There is an assessment instrument that enables the instructor to adjust the individual marks if it looks like the “lazy student” has not contributed to the group effort. It can be a challenge when students drop out and/or cant get along and the group dynamics change and often the instructor has to clean it up.

This is always trumpeted loudly but often the “lazy student” gets away with it as breaking rank, or turning on someone with personal power and “wasta” (personal power and influence in Arabic), is certainly a dangerous thing to do.

Reflective

As instructors (usually three (3) of us with two sections each) we spend 5 hours per week with each section for EP2250 Business Feasibility and then seven (7) hours in EP2200 Business Planning so we see quite clearly what is going on and that the “Majlis” (the meeting place – men and women have their own) is so busy talking and not working and getting stuff done. Often the super smart Indian guy will do the work and many times it looks like someone else played a role in the material because money can buy lots of things.

Interpretive

This means to me as instructor that it is so important to get the classroom dynamics right, and when they go wrong let me manage them as otherwise when people outside the classroom do – chaos eschews resulting in bad group dynamics, poor performance and results.

Decisional

For next semester – let the students register as they wish, leave group size to us the instructors – with suggestion four (4) group members –  (the bigger the group the better report should be), let the instructor manage the class and let the students figure it out and trade each other for help in weak fields if for example there are four accountants together or our marketers. They will figure it out. They are smarter than you might think.

Reflect on how this course has impacted your thinking.

Objective

I thoroughly enjoyed the course PIDP 3230 Evaluation of Learning as it raised so many interesting topics related to learning and to my craft.

There were many things that caught my attention as I participated in this course.

It was very good to discuss Blooms again. I found myself thinking about what I do as I am preparing my Assessments and even as I reflect right now – higher critical thinking, validity, reliability, informal learning, plain language, creating a trusting, caring learning environment in a multicultural environment where for the first time ever in their entire education they are learning together in the same classroom.

Reflective

It helped me recognize some amazing best practices and made me appreciate how many different classroom assessment techniques there are that are simple and fun and don’t take much time.

It was most enjoyable to learn from many colleagues in other areas besides teaching.

There are lots of amazing cultural and group dynamics happening besides the learning so it was good to have opportunity to reflect on what was covered and what can be used by me in mt classroom.

I found the work we did on the CAT to be most helpful and the topic I chose was Profile of Admirable Individuals for my Entrepreneurship class where the actual research of answering the questions below improved my understanding and effectiveness in an area that I was focusing on already. I added it here because it really made me focus on what I was trying to achieve.

PURPOSE OF THE CAT

This profiling of an Entrepreneur assessment gives value to the student by asking the to 1) select and profile and entrepreneur they admire 2) to explain what they like about the individual and why. 1 The activity helps me understand the images and values students associate with best practice. It also helps students with assessing their own values and creates a good dialogue related to the course objectives in an informal fashion that they really enjoy. Feedback on the responses of other students helps them realize that, in any classroom, there will be several different sets of values in play. 1

WHAT ARE THE PROS OF CONDUCTING THIS CAT?

Writing a Profile of an Admirable Individual requires each student to consider his or her own values and to select an individual on the basis of that valuing.

This technique can provide Faculty with clear information about the role models that have influenced students during their adolescence and early adulthood. 1

WHAT ARE THE DISADVANTAGES OF THIS CAT?

Discussing or writing about values makes some students uncomfortable.

Without doing some research, many students will not be able to identify admirable individuals in the disciplines they are studying. Specifying the admirable characteristics of the individual’s profiles is often a challenge.

The less explicit students are about their values, the more time teachers must spend reading the profiles – and often, reading between the lines.3

HOW I WILL USE THIS CAT TO PROVIDE FEEDBACK TO THE STUDENT?

Through classroom discussion and maybe privately depending on the situation. This activity gets them thinking about what it takes to be an Entrepreneur and makes them think about themselves as an entrepreneur which makes it a powerful activity.

AN EXAMPLE OF HOW I WILL USE THIS CAT?

Early in the semester as an icebreaker and topic of discussion about Entrepreneurship. The challenge is to stop them telling all the real-life stories and focus on the individual’s characteristics – the who, not the what.

The individual chosen is less important than the student’s explanation of that individuals

admirable qualities. They love this assignment.

QUESTIONS FOR YOU?

  • How can you use this strategy?
  • What did you learn from the experience?
  • What did I do that helped you learn?

Interpretive

What this means is that there are many great ideas out there and don’t hesitate to try them in the classroom. It made me appreciate the variety of teaching methodologies by going through Assignment 4 and talking to my colleagues. I enjoyed the discussion on formal and information assessment and the hot potatoes were very good.

I enjoyed going through the course outline in detail and looking for words that improved the educational experience for my students. Looking at assessments for validity and reliability was most useful. I also enjoyed the time spent on Classroom Assessment Techniques.

Decisional

I will be using more of these techniques in my classroom as I now feel more confident and have a better understanding by taking the course and my interactions with my colleagues. I enjoyed the discussion as well as what I learned through our assessments. Thank you and I appreciate all the techniques and ideas to help me improve my craft. Thanks again.

I cannot teach anybody. I can only make them think – Socrates

References

1 Web Site Search – Images – Reflective Writing https://www.bing.com/images/search?view=detailV2&ccid=bJki05kt&id=A3F634BB22F445F6E66C7DF36540C995B017D4E8&thid=OIP.bJki05ktaMMBdA5CIk6_nAHaJV&mediaurl=https%3A%2F%2Fi.pinimg.com%2Foriginals%2F2b%2F26%2F06%2F2b26069692f6081fbefbf865bd7d1cb6.png&exph=633&expw=502&q=reflective+writing&simid=608050802513413302&selectedindex=11&ajaxhist=0&vt=0

2 The Art of Evaluation P. 15-20

3 Thomas, A. Angelo, K. Patricia Cross 2nd Edition 1993 Classroom Assessment Techniques – A Handbook for College Teachers Jossey Bass A Wiley Company P. 267-270

Gibbs Reflective Cycle

PIDP3230 Assignment #4 B – 23 Direct Paraphrasing – Informal – Peter Robertson

PIDP3230 Assignment #4 – 30 Profiles of…Informal – Peter Robertson

PIDP 3240 Media Enhanced Learning

The Media Enhanced Learning course enables participants to create, select, use and justify media, technology and tools for their various teaching and learning environments. The course emphasizes the application of media related concepts, copyright laws, media approaches and learning theories in the creation and selection of instructional media. Participants will investigate the current trends and issues, and will work with a wide range of instructional media tools.

 

 The primary instructional strategies for the course are on-line modules, group work, independent research and project development, discussions, conferences, presentations, and reflective journaling.        

PIDP 3240 Media Enhanced Learning

Reflective Writing

Assignment 1 

May 21st 2017

 Objective

Technology has changed education by increasing the availability of knowledge and opportunities for communication and interaction. Another new technology has changed the way students learn: computer and video games are now our most common teacher1. P.51The average American 21 year-old has played 10,000 hours of games, about as many hours as they would have spent in perfect attendance from fifth grade through high school (McGonigal,2010;Prensky,2010) – more than enough hours to become a concert musician (Ericsson, Krampe, & Tesch – Romer, 1993) and Malcolm Gladwell’s(2008) magic number of practice hours for success. Five million Americans spend more than 40 hours a week playing games (McGonigal, 2010, 2011)1. P.51.

 Reflective

This is very interesting to me as technology, (and I am very technical, although there is so much to learn), is changing the way we teach in and outside the classroom as we are learning in “Teaching Naked”. We as educators are working hard to keep up with all the changes that the technology is bringing to the forefront. We need also to be seen as “’connecting’’ by the students. I am very interested to see how we can turn that “Game Time” into “Learn Time’’. That is something I am still working on.

Another interesting quote is the idea that “’as learning has become more interactive, gaming has become the ubiquitous model for understanding and delivering interactive learning.’’ Lots to think about.

There are some good articles on this as well about people not keeping up as well with the idea of technology in the classroom. Training is critical and given

‘’With the infusion of technology into all aspects of daily life, students are becoming more and more adept at using technology as an educational resource. Many faculty, however, are not keeping pace with their students. Additionally, faculty feel increasingly unprepared to integrate technology into the classroom.1 “Little has been done to prepare reluctant technology users for the networked computers flooding into their rooms,” according to Jamie McKenzie, editor of the Web-based journal From Now On.2 Many institutions of higher learner now offer technology courses to faculty to bridge this gap, helping them master the intricacies of PowerPoint or learn to post materials in a course management system. These courses help to an extent, but classes in using technology do not prepare faculty to effectively incorporate technology into their teaching.2’’ James Efaw2

Interpretive

Understanding what the technology can do in the classroom is something we are all talking about trying to understand how we can use it effectively, and also, what we need to understand and not use. It is in many ways a new area and is changing the way we as educators operate and how the classroom is set up. We need to learn more about this area which is why so many of us are taking courses such as this.

As we studied in some of our other courses we need to engage for success and maybe we can engage more effectively by utilizing technology. I spent some time looking at other educational systems such as Finland and Singapore and some videos. It is interesting. There is not a lot of information on Post Secondary Education.

 Decisional

I currently use several types of technology in my classroom where I teach a wide variety of Business topics. I use technologies such as email, What’s Up, D2L where we keep all of our extensive materials, create discussion groups, add assignments etc. and of course PowerPoints to present the material.

I believe there is room for more. What is the balance I should try and create? How do I have a balance of new technology, engagement and content and me. I need to continue my engagement with them as this is so important to me and what I think one of my key successes – good engagement with the students. This idea of 10,000 hours and spent on the right things is interesting.

I need to continue my interest in gaming and see if I can apply it to my classroom situation. I found in my international marketing class there was opportunity to really do something to improve their worldliness – their knowledge of current and world events was terrible. And their knowledge was so limited. (It is not a reading society and they gain most of their knowledge from Social Media and what we now call “fake news”” (what is the truth anymore !). Could a game help improve that?. Knowledge on general subjects like- China has a poor human rights record, trade group names, Brexit, “Healthcare and education spending in South East Asia have pushed their economies forward, history, geography, politics, law etc.

Yes. I need to continue with my use of technology in a balanced fashion. I need to look into other technologies and see where they can fit. I need to continue to learn and grow my practice. I need to look more into gaming. I need to work on games that can educate for my classroom activities. I need to read and learn more.

 References

  1. Bowen, Jose Antonio, Teaching Naked (2012) – How Moving Technology Out of Your College Classroom Will Improve Student Learning, Jossey Bass San Francisco – John Wiley and Sons
  2. Web Site – Efaw, James. (January 1, 2005).  Why IT Matters to Higher Education Eudcause

Review. No Teacher Left Behind:  How to Teach with Technology. Retrieved May 20, 2017 from

http://www.educause.edu/ero/article/no-teacher-left-behind-how-teach-technology

3 Video – Technology in the Classroom  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uZ73ZsBkcus

  1. Video – Microsoft Vision of Education in the Future https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aJu6GvA7jN8
  2. Video – Singapore’s 21st-Century Teaching Strategies (Education Everywhere Series) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M_pIK7ghGw4
  3. Video – Finland’s Revolutionary Education System – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qlOfZL_J5fo
  4. Video – Why Education Works in Finland – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ntdYxqRce_s
  5. Student Motivation, Engagement, and Achievement – Web Site – http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/107034/chapters/Student-Motivation,-Engagement,-and-Achievement.aspx
  6. Video – ‘What if Finland’s Great Teachers Taught in Your Schools?’ Pasi Sahlberg – WISE 2013 Focus

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ERvh0hZ6uP8

  1. Video – Inside Finland’s education system https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-LpRQvKx6r0

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PIDP 3240 Media Enhanced Learning

Reflective Writing

How I am Going To Use of Media in the Classroom

June 6th 2020

Objective

There is considerable debate about the use of media in the classroom and I find the topic very interesting. There are many opinions on the matter so what this essay will try to do is to explore some of those debates and think about my use of media in the classroom. I wrote about this in some detail for Assignment #3 so I will try and discuss this from my perspective and the tools that I currently use and what I would like to incorporate in the future because I believe very much in the use of media in the classroom to improve the learning experience and improve engagement from the students.

I want to look closer at the tools I currently use and explore new tools or others I have found while doing the PIDP. Taking the PDIP made me look closer at my current practices in terms of pedagogy and social media and also introduced me to some new technology that I have used in my classes. With the recent Covid 19 issue we moved all our classes online since March and the students were very positive about the experience as we teach D2L using Zoom.

I am very technical and have mastered all of the technologies we use at CNAQ such as Zoom, Kahoot, Socratic and Screen O Matic to name a few as well as Powtoon that I learned about doing my PIDP. I have taken numerous courses on Mobile Learning and Social Media. I have taken courses on D2L which is our learning platform and the key focus of our classroom both face to face and online and is my number one media platform because it is so detailed and I am going to focus on it in my use of media in the classroom.

As I said our learning system that we use at CNAQ is Desire to Learn or D2L and we have been using it for 12 years sporadically but seriously for six years with all faculty using it. What is so great about D2L is that it integrates with our Peoplesoft registration system and refreshes daily and has Zoom built into it for ease of use. Another benefit is that we have one system College wide and we do not have to complicate the process like other educational institutes by using multiple platforms like Microsoft Teams and Google.

D2L (Brightspace) is a global software company with offices in the United States, Canada, Singapore, Australia, Europe, and Brazil. It is the developer of the Brightspace learning management system, which is a cloud-based software used by schools, higher education, and businesses for online and blended classroom learning. D2L is also the developer of Open Courses, a Massive Open Online Course platform.2 D2L was founded in 1999 by President and CEO John Baker M.S.C. in his third year of Systems Design Engineering at the University of Waterloo. Today the company has over 800 employees. The technology is now used by over 1200 schools, colleges, universities, and businesses around the world.3

What is so nice about it is that DS2L is easy to use for the students and instructors and you can easily add media to the platform such as links or web site, video etc.

Reflective

Looking at Desire to Learn or Brightspace’s website they talk about some of the things their platform can do such as:

Personalize learning

Allow learners to learn on their terms, proceed through content at their own pace, and access learning from any device.

Easily deliver personalized feedback to keep learners motivated, on track, and engaged.

Guide a learner’s mastery of subject matter and core competencies.

Encourage collaboration and community by making it easy for learners to connect, participate in forums and discussions, and view each other’s profiles.

Use portfolios to reflect on learning, showcase growth, and celebrate achievements.

Identify and track high-risk learners and let Brightspace proactively alert you when to step in and offer help.1

There is lots of research on the use of media in the classroom for teaching and learning

Research suggests that people learn abstract, new, and novel concepts more easily when they are presented in both verbal and visual form (Salomon, 1979). Other empirical research shows that visual media make concepts more accessible to a person than text media and help with later recall (Cowen, 1984). In Willingham’s (2009) research he asks a simple question to make his point, “Why do students remember everything that’s on television and forget what we lecture?” — because visual media helps students retain concepts and ideas.4

Interpretive

D2L are exploring other areas of interest to me such as gaming and this is an example from their website.

As sitting practice examinations can significantly boost the chance of good results in the final examination, Kaplan Financial created a system that rewards learners with five points for completing a mock examination and a further one point for passing this practice paper.

“By making the leaderboard available for all learners on a given course, we can galvanize learners to engage in a spot of healthy competition to spur their learning,” says Stuart Pedley-Smith”.3

As well as awarding learners for completing revision tasks, the badging system in MyKaplan rewards learners for exhibiting positive behaviors by giving them a digital certificate and leaderboard points to recognize their effort and determination.

“In recent years, we’ve seen a rise in the number of learners who take longer breaks before completing the next level of qualification or re-sitting failed papers,” continues Pedley-Smith. “Our initial research indicates that waiting too long between exams could have a negative impact on their likelihood of passing. So, we decided to award a badge to candidates who book their exams early or who do not reschedule their exam dates—encouraging learners to stay committed to their studies.”3

With 71 percent of learners reporting that gamification has a positive impact on their learning experience, it is clear that Kaplan Financial is succeeding in making studying more engaging and enriching.3

Decisional

I enjoy the experience of D2L and I continue to improve my skills like using it for Quizzes now with Rubrics and feedback and Discussion Groups but there is lots to learn and D2L continues to improve.  They talk about their focus on their website:

”Built by educators for educators, Brightspace will make you more productive and save you time while improving your students learning experiences”.1

Brightspace makes it easy for me to complete common tasks such as:

Giving feedback on assignments.

Automatically releasing new content or courses.

Creating and using rubrics.

Posting announcements and assignments in an activity feed.

Dragging content directly into a course.1

It really does automate the boring tasks and improve organization and engagement and I don’t know how I could live without it.

Some areas that I wish to explore in the future include with D2L include

Some of the other features of D2L that I have been exploring are agents and badges like the Kaplan System. Agents let students move on after they have completed a lesson unit. Badges let you add gamification and reward users who can advance at their own pace through the lessons.

Other tools that I use include Socratic, Powtoon, Screen o Matic and Kahoot. Socratic is great for Quizzes in class. Powtoon is a fun program to make short videos and I have used it a few times. Screen O Matic is great for creating videos outside of the Zoom ones I use and is handy for creating lessons and reviewing materials by capturing voice and what is on the screen. It is easy to use and upload to D2L although I am working to master the video editor upgrade I purchased. Kahoot are doing exciting things as well although I am not sure if they have integrated with D2L yet. Kahoot is a great gamification tool that is easy to use and make learning entertaining and allows the students to test their knowledge through True and False and Multiple Choice by using their phones. They are working on integration as well although just for Microsoft Teams at the moment. I am sure they will be working with D2L in the future as which would be great.

With many educators and students around the world relying on Microsoft Teams to engage in learning remotely, we’re happy to announce our powerful new integration with this platform to make it even easier to connect across distance!7

Taking the PIDP program has enabled me to learn more about many areas of teaching and has been very beneficial to me as I improve what I do in the classroom to engage learners. I will continue to use media in the classroom and work to stay ahead of the curve as technology evolves and increases the ways I can deliver material to my students.

References

1. Desire to Learn D2L Website https://www.d2l.com/en-mea/higher-education/#2-put-learners-first

2. Desire to Learn – retrieved from Wikipedia  – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/D2L

3. Desire to Learn Kaplan Uses Gamification – Retrieved from D2L website https://www.d2l.com/en-mea/customers/kaplan-financial/

4. Why use Media to enhance teaching and learning – Website retrieved from https://serc.carleton.edu/econ/media/why.html

5. 22 Ways to use social media in the classroom – Website retrieved from https://www.theedadvocate.org/22-ways-use-social-media-classroom/

6. 25 Lesson Ideas to use social media in the classroom – Website retrieved from https://www.bookwidgets.com/blog/2018/03/25-lesson-ideas-to-use-social-media-in-the-classroom

7. Kahoot email June 5th 2020

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PIDP 3240 Media Enhanced Learning

Reflective Writing

Creative Commons – What is it and what can it do for you?

June 3rd 2020

PIDP 3240 Instructional Strategies – Reflective Writing

Objective

To gain a greater understanding for Creative Commons which I know a little about.  How can I use it in my work.

Creative commons is a way to deal with copyright for all educators and students.  There have been some changes to the Creative Commons rules recently.  Check out this website to learn more about CC.
http://creativecommons.org/about

Creative Commons is a nonprofit organization dedicated to building a globally-accessible public commons of knowledge and culture. We make it easier for people to share their creative and academic work, as well as to access and build upon the work of others. By helping people and organizations share knowledge and creativity, we aim to build a more equitable, accessible, and innovative world.2

Work licensed under a Creative Commons license is governed by applicable copyright law.10This allows Creative Commons licenses to be applied to all work falling under copyright, including: books, plays, movies, music, articles, photographs, blogs, and websites.10 Released in November 2013, the 4.0 license suite is the most current.10

While Software is also governed by copyright law and CC licenses are applicable, the Creative Commons recommends Free and open-source software licenses instead of Creative Commons licenses.[11] Outside the FOSS licensing use case for software there are several usage examples to utilize CC licenses to specify a “Freeware” license model; examples are The White Chamber, Mari0 or Assault Cube.[12] Also the Free Software Foundation recommends the CC0[13] as the preferred method of releasing software into the public domain.[14]10

In order to achieve our mission, we:2

  • Provide Creative Commons licenses and public domain tools that give every person and organization in the world a free, simple, and standardized way to grant copyright permissions for creative and academic works; ensure proper attribution; and allow others to copy, distribute, and make use of those works
  • Work closely with major institutions and governments to ensure the correct use and implementation of CC licenses and CC-licensed content
  • Support the CC Global Network, a community initiative working to increase the volume, breadth, and quality of openly available knowledge worldwide
  • Develop technology like CC Search that makes openly licensed material easier to discover and use
  • Offer the Creative Commons Certificate, an in-depth course for people interested in becoming experts in creating and engaging with openly licensed works
  • Produce CC Summit, an annual event that brings together an international group of educators, artists, technologists, legal experts, and activists to promote the power of open licensing and global access2 There are courses available that take 10 weeks.5

We make it easier for people to share their creative and academic work, as well as to access and build upon the work of others. By helping people and organizations share knowledge and creativity, we aim to build a more equitable, accessible, and innovative world.2

Here is another video on this topic:

Creative Commons Video1

Creative Commons is simply a private service provider advocating what is dubbed a substitute, or alternative, to the law. In fact, for all intents and purposes, Creative Commons is an extremely powerful political movement that successfully promotes a “some rights reserved” approach to copyright in lieu of the standard “all rights reserved” approach to copyright law. The organization’s fundamental goal is to reduce restrictions on copyright and strengthen the public domain by adding more works to it, effectively immunizing people who share other’s content online from legal liability. The background story is interesting on Creative Commons. It was founded by well-known Harvard Law Professor Larry Lessig at the time he was deeply involved in a legal battle that sought to reduce restrictions imposed by federal copyright law, a fight that ultimately made its way to the U.S. Supreme Court. He lost the case and no doubt channeled his frustration into building Creative Commons, a pay-back of sorts.6

Reflective

Creative Commons is a fantastic initiative that gives every person and organization in the world a free, simple, and standardized way to grant copyright permissions for creative and academic works; ensure proper attribution; and allow others to copy, distribute, and make use of those works.2

There were concerns that the release of this material which used to be paid for would create problems, but those issues have been generally been resolved through lawsuits in various countries that have helped clarify the issues.10

Here is a list of some of them:

5 Expensive Problems with Creative Commons6

Beware of these common problems to your small business when you apply a Creative Commons license to your own work or use a work with a Creative Commons license:

Creative Commons Licenses Offer No Legal Protection

Creative Commons offers no form of protection to the creator beyond what common law provides. Creative Commons licenses have no legal significance beyond the license itself.6

Creative Commons Licenses are Irrevocable

According to the fine print on the Creative Commons website, Creative Commons licenses cannot be revoked once they’ve been applied to a work. If you use a Creative Commons license, make sure you’re not going to change your mind in the future about giving everyone open access to your work.6

Creative Commons Licenses are Not Simple

Creative Commons licenses can be updated at any time, and those licenses are not simple. Each is pages long with a lot of legal language in them. Make sure you understand what you’re agreeing to before you apply a Creative Commons license to your work or use another person’s work with a Creative Commons license.6

Creative Commons Won’t Help You if You Have Problems

The Creative Commons organization absolves itself of any problems you might encounter with one of its licenses in the future within its terms saying, “Creative Commons gives no warranties regarding its licenses … disclaims all liability for damages resulting from their use to the fullest extent possible … is not a party to its public licenses.” If something goes wrong, you’re on your own.6, 10

The Creative Commons License on Someone Else’s Work Might Not Be Valid

A big problem with Creative Commons licenses is the fact that anyone can apply them to any work. For example, many of the Creative Commons licensed images on Flickr, Google, and sites that aggregate images weren’t uploaded by the owners of the images. The Creative Commons licenses applied by the people who uploaded the images (but don’t own them) are completely invalid! If you use one of these improperly licensed images, you very well might get caught and find yourself on the losing end of an expensive copyright infringement lawsuit.6, 10

But here are some other issues with Creative Commons when it comes to pictures:

  • It is a blanket permission that extends to every single person on the planet
  • It is perpetual
  • You cannot revoke it; once you have assigned CC on an image, or text, it is there forever, you cannot change it8

Interpretive

As I researched this further, I was particularly inspired by the positive keynote speech at the 2018 Creative Commons Conference by Chris Bourg a noted expert on Creative Commons from MIT Library.

Ï am passionate about Creative Commons for the simple reason that if more people have open and free access to scholarly research around the globe, we do better science and the world is a better place. It is a better place because individuals who have access to knowledge can live more informed and empowered and better lives and it is a better place because societies and communities in which people have better access to research will be better equipped to handle the big challenges like clean water, climate change, poverty, disease, food, quality education and ethical issues in technology for example.””People would otherwise have to pay out of pocket for the research and it is very expensive.With the growthof the Internet it is necessary and needed. 5

Creative Commons is a necessary evolution of education and the some rights reserved”” deal with copyright gives flexibility and reduces costs. Creative Commons is not a copyright-free zone..7

Decisional – Caveat Emptor

Creative Commons is a good thing. Many would like the organization to succeed7. Ultimately, though, the accumulated misattributions of Creative Commons licensed materials are bad for everyone. The more that content distributors take without giving back, the less incentive creators have to feed material into the system. If open-source art is going to work, users need to be partners, not parasites.7

The Takeaway

The good news is that Creative Commons is a great option for bridging the gap between copyright law and open access and sharing of creative works, but it’s far from perfect. The bad news is that Creative Commons gives you no legal protection, and it gives other people permission to use and profit from (depending on the license you choose) your creative work—the very things that copyright laws protect you from. Be very careful both in applying Creative Commons licenses to your own work and using works created by others that have Creative Commons licenses. Things are not always as cut-and-dry as they might seem.6

Education is a big issue in this instance and the need for it is something that isn’t going away any time soon.

It is critically important that users of Creative Commons understand the deal they’re making when they’re using CC licensed images. Unlike a traditionally licensed copyright, there is no one standing behind those licenses and guaranteeing that they’re valid. Creative Commons is not a party to any of its license agreements and doesn’t take any responsibility for abuse of the system. If you unwittingly use a CC licensed image that was improperly marked (and anyone can apply a license to any work), as Linsey indicated in her comment, you’re still on the hook for copyright infringement. Your argument that you thought the work was available to use won’t help you if you are sued. Because most lawsuits filed against small businesses are settled out of court (it’s usually cost prohibitive to defend the suit), we don’t read about them or hear about them on the news. I ask, where are you Creative Commons when I need you? Caveat emptor – buyer beware!6

Do not use Creative Commons for Photographs. Instead, use traditional Copyright.8

You have copyright automatically, you don’t need to do anything to have it, unless you relinquish it with CC or give it up in some other way.

And then add whatever terms and conditions that you want.

If you want to allow people to use the images on their personal blogs, then just say so: “All images copyright John Doe, images may be used on personal blogs”

Or even better, say something like this: “You are free to use my images on personal blogs, provided you ask my permission in advance.” Actually, isn’t that really a very reasonable request? If someone wants to use your pictures, is it not showing at least a minimum of respect towards the photographer to actually first ask his permission? If you use Creative Commons there is no requirement to ask permission. Anyone can just take it and you will never know.8

Or if you do not like the hassle (?) of approving requests for use then you can even say: “you can use it provided you send me a link to where you use it afterwards”.

And you can do even better if you want: “you are free to use my images on personal blogs provided you link back to my blog”. A great way to generate backlinks and improve your search rankings.

You cannot do any of that with Creative Commons.

Or you can set any other conditions or requirements that you want. It is entirely up to you. With Creative commons it is not.

And you will know who uses your images and where. You can never really know that with Creative Commons. Which also means for example that if The Huffington Post, that is not a personal blog, or the regional newspaper, that is not a personal blog, use your image, then you can charge them for it.8

I find it difficult to see what the point of Creative Commons is unless your view is that you are just happy with having as many people as possible use your images for free and only care about a credit line but never about intellectual property or payment.””8

Copyright is one of the basic pillars of any photographer’s business. Without it anyone and everyone could use your pictures without any restraints. Copyright essentially says that if anyone wants to use your picture they have to get your permission. You can give that permission or not. 8

The Creative Commons community is continuing to grow and legal agreements have been drawn up in over 50 countries and enabling the sharing of research despite the photographers woes. The community is very active and there are courses and conferences. There are lots of resources on this.

Whether you’re a volunteer, professor, instructional designer, researcher, administrator or technologist—or simply looking for a great holiday gift—this book offers a background on copyright law, as well as a clear guide to open licensing and open advocacy. You can read this book on its own or while taking the CC Certificate course.9 

I found the Wikipedia page to be most helpful and I look forward to using Creative Commons in my work now that I have a greater understanding of it and what it can do for my craft.

Rights in an adaptation can be expressed by a CC license that is compatible with the status or licensing of the original work or works on which the adaptation is based.10

References

1. Creative Commons Video https://moodle.vcc.ca/mod/page/view.php?id=909209

2. Creative Commons Web Site – https://creativecommons.org/about

3. Video –  Creative Commons  https://www.youtube.com/user/creativecommons

4 Video – Using Creative Commons Videos on You Tube

5. Video – Creative Commons Conference 2018 Keynote Speech  Day 2 Chris Bourg MIT Libraries https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6JN3EGpraAY

6. Website  – Using Creative Commons – https://smallbiztrends.com/2015/03/using-creative-commons.html

7. Website  – Creative Commons – Why I don’t Use  – https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/compound-eye/an-example-of-why-i-dont-use-creative-commons-licenses/

8. Website – Per Karlsson BK Wine Photography – Why Creative Commons is a bad idea for pictures  – https://www.bkwinephotography.com/on-copyright/reasons-why-creative-commons-is-a-bad-idea/

9. Creative Commons Resources https://creativecommons.org/2019/12/06/cc-for-educators-and-librarians-is-available/

10. Website – Wikipedia – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Creative_Commons_license

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PIDP 3240 Media Enhanced Learning

Instructional Video

June 7th 2020

PIDP 3240 Media Enhanced Learning – Assignment 4

https://youtu.be/L6locLClxns Peters Juicy Meatballs Recipe June 7th 2020

Peter;s Juicy Meatballs Recipe June 2020

1. What did you learn about the process of creating your Online Educational Video? 

I learned that it is relatively easy to make a video but the challenge is in the editing of it which I learned although have not mastered. I tried to work with my Screen o matic video editor but I had difficulty due to my lack of experience and finally got it all working with Inshot1 and Videoshop2 video editor on my phone that allowed me to add Vlog free music relatively easily. Because I did a cooking video there was lots of talking and that made it challenging to speed up the video which is a little long at first take (just over 12 minutes but shorter when I had practiced the performance). I used YouTube Video Editor to bring it down under 8 minutes which was great.  I might have tried another take with more things prepped like the bread and parsley and mixing the ingredients but I didn’t have a second set of ingredients and thought I might be able to edit more out than I did.

I pieced together three separate videos and I need to get better at this the next time I do it, although I did learn a lot.

2. Which classmates’ Online Educational Videos did you like and why?

I liked Andre Sugianto Photoshop presentation and I found it very interesting as a photographer. His format was good with being able to see him and the screen so he is obviously very comfortable with video editing and photoshop which I admire. His lesson was over fourteen minutes but it flowed well.

Ryan Monks How to change a dirt bike tire was a good hands on lesson in nine minutes and I found Wendy Ross – Napkin Folding to be very straight forward and she took a little over six minutes.

The length of time is very much dependent on the complexity of your lesson.

3. How would you use an Online Educational Video in your practice? 

I can see the use of Screen o matic to make in class videos from the screen and I have done that numerous times and I am very comfortable with that. It is just the Screen o matic editor I have a challenge with and need to practice more. I can see that being very useful for many of the concepts I discuss in class and I would like to try and incorporate video where possible once I feel more comfortable with the editing. I would like to take a course on it or watch you tube videos to improve my skills in this area and try the Windows Video Editor which has great reviews.

4. What would you do differently next time you create an Online Educational Video? 

I would have a clock that I could see as I was shocked at the time when I did it for real, and not for practice. It was just over 8 minutes when I practiced and as I say I would have prepped more to save time and speed up if I knew I was taking so long. Lucky I figured out how to edit it down.

5. Compare your presentation to the rubric and the expectations and determine a mark out of 15.

I think this video deserves a mark of 13.5 or A-

6. Write a brief rationale making reference to the rubric and expectations as to why this mark out of 15 reflects your learning and the project you created.

A solid consistent performance; demonstrated competency of knowledge and skills

I think the video deserves this mark despite being a little longer at just 8 minutes because:

The look and feel to the project is above average.

The project meets all the technical specifications.

The presentation contains no spelling mistakes and the all images highlight the topic.

Transitions where appropriate are used.

The audio is clear and there are no visual distractions.

There is a clear purpose to the presentation and this purpose is a supported and accomplished.

Creative Commons Copyright is displayed

References

1. Inshot – Retrieved from their web site http://inshotapp.com/

2. Videoshop – https://apps.apple.com/us/app/videoshop-video-editor/id615563599

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PIDP 3240 Media Enhanced Learning

The Role of Media in the Classroom

Assignment 3

June 10th 2020

Objective

The role of media in the classroom is a very interesting topic and is often debated by academics, parents and other interested parties. Media has been a key player in the growth of literacy and improving how students learn and where they learn through traditional forms like books, newspapers, magazines, radio and television and today through electronic forms like the internet and social media. This media helps reduce costs in many areas and improves the distribution of knowledge spreading information and learning to the masses.

The role of media in the development of education has been imperative. It has played an important part in influencing the underprivileged and the socio-economic backward sections of the society in recognizing the significance of education. Various forms of media such as newspapers, television, radio, internet and so forth have largely contributed in spreading amongst the masses the viewpoint that they should focus upon the development of the basic literacy skills of reading, writing and arithmetic, in order to make their living efficient.1

Learning is a process to acquire knowledge. It needs hard work and sometimes will make students frustrated and bored. In this case, the use of media in teaching- learning process is needed to attract students’ attention and to make teaching- learning activities more interesting and also effective.

The use of media leads students to learn by doing. In other words we can say that in learning by doing process, students improve themselves from know nothing to know something, from know something to understand the concept. When students use media in learning then they will have the experience of learning and directly involve in the learning process.2

”Technology arouses interest and enthusiasm in the mind-sets of the students to learn. Therefore, the role of media is significant in the development of education.” 1

Technology can deliver new educational opportunities for everyone. It offers huge opportunities to transform global education at all age levels. Technology continues to develop at a rapid pace and access to technologies such as mobile phones and the internet is growing.

This means:

  • 2.7 billion people worldwide use the internet
  • 6.8 billion people have access to mobile phones
  • The number of phones able to access the internet is increasing by 7% per year – and 56% of people will have internet access by 2020
  • Educational content available through online courses nearly doubled in 201510

New technologies like AI, machine learning, and educational software aren’t just changing the field for students, they’re shaking up the role of educators, creating philosophical shifts in approaches to teaching, and remodeling the classroom.11

Digital skills are necessary for taking part in the global economy. Mobile technologies have reached even the poorest parts of the world – but skill gaps remain and school students are often taught skills that will not help them to access jobs in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Maths).11

There is a risk of technology being deployed in a way that rewards young people in richer countries and leaves others in low-income countries lagging behind when it comes to getting the skills needed for the new economies.10

Reflective

On one hand, technology allows you to experiment in pedagogy, democratize the classroom and better engage students. On the other hand, some argue technology in the classroom can be distracting and even foster cheating.9

Here are some of the Pros and Cons of Technology in the Classroom

The pros:

1. Using technology in the classroom allows you to experiment more in pedagogy and get instant feedback.9

2. Technology in the classroom helps ensure full participation.

3. There are countless resources for enhancing education and making learning more fun and effective.

4. Technology can automate a lot of your tedious tasks.

5. With technology in the classroom, your students have instant access to fresh information that can supplement their learning experience.

6. We live in a digital world, and technology is a life skill.

The cons

1. Technology in the classroom can be a distraction. 9

2. Technology can disconnect students from social interactions and engagement.

3. Technology can foster cheating in class and on assignments.

4. Students don’t have equal access to technological resources. Technology costs money.

5. The quality of research and sources they find may not be top-notch.

6. Lesson planning might become more labor-intensive with technology.

Interpretive

“Digital education is generating new learning opportunities as students engage in online, digital environments and as faculty change educational practices through the use of hybrid courses, personalized instruction, new collaboration models and a wide array of innovative, engaging learning strategies.

Furthermore, a 21st century view of learner success requires students to not only be thoughtful consumers of digital content, but effective and collaborative creators of digital media, demonstrating competencies and communicating ideas through dynamic storytelling, data visualization and content curation.”

David Goodrum, director of academic technology and information services, Oregon State University, in Campus Technology9

Here are some of the positives and negatives of classroom usage of educational technology.

Positives to Technology in the classroom

Retrieved from  https://brandongaille.com/23-advantages-disadvantages-technology-education/ 12

Negatives to Technology in the classroom

Retrieved from  https://brandongaille.com/23-advantages-disadvantages-technology-education/ 12

Decisional

In instructor-led classrooms, teachers step away from being a “sage on the stage” and become a “guide on the side” – a facilitator of learning.3 As an instructor, your role is to help students understand what they are hearing, reading or seeing as they analyze, evaluate and use media. It is also the instructor’s responsibility to provide students with access to materials before, during and after learning a concept.3

In instructor-led learning, media can be used before a discussion to give students an anchor, shared during a discussion to reinforce ideas and theories, or presented as part of a case study and analyzed by students using the theories and concepts discussed. 3

In particular, using moving images and sound to communicate a topic is engaging, insightful and aid in the mastery of more difficult ideas.

Student-led or student-generated learning encourages students to take on the role of the teacher. Students are tasked with creating content to engage other learners and help them master concepts.3

Allowing students voice and choice in their learning contributes to higher levels of motivation and engagement. The content-mastery, skills and accountability that underlies media creation also mean that students move beyond passive consumption; the aim is to teach students to become active and ethical media users and producers.3

In most cases, you do not have to be tech-savvy to utilize this style of learning. Many of today’s students have grown up in a digital world and will be somewhat fluent in the language of digital expression. Rather, your role is to guide your students to create content that has a purpose and is meaningful for their intended audience.

In more recent years, the explosive growth of social media has given us unprecedented opportunities to share information, ideas and resources with the world. Young people are increasingly gravitating towards social media to document their experiences and interact with their peers. For all its perceived flaws, social media is a dominant form of media that probably already has ample buy-in from students, and it is important not to overlook this medium and the impact it can have on enhancing teaching and learning.

Social media has a strong impact on students. The studies focused on the impact of social media and reflected that 38% of students focus on the positive role of social media for their studies while 16% of students agreed on this strongly, but only 40% disagreed. 6 4.7% of students strongly disagreed that social media helps them in the study. It is also clear that social media impacts both genders and according to the results, it can be seen that 53% of female students are getting the negative impact of social media on their studies while 46% disagreed this point. In the male students, 40% agree that social media has a negative impact on studies while 59% disagreed this notion.6

Some ways to incorporate social media in teaching and learning include:

  • Writing blog posts where students describe their experiences or share information.
  • Scrolling through online news feeds so students can access the latest updates on news and events.
  • Creating a social media page where you can easily post updates to keep parents and students in the loop about school or class events, projects and other communication.
  • Access help and support from experts by posting a question to Twitter or Facebook. This also allows other students to see the question posted and the relevant response or feedback.
  • Encouraging collaboration between students working on group assignments.3

There are many advantages of using social media in your classrooms;

  • Promotes peer interaction and therefore a sense of belonging among students and their peers, as well as students and their instructors.
  • Students are likely to have already been exposed to – if not familiar with – social platforms such as Facebook, Instagram effectively lowering the “learning-curve” associated with using a new technology
  • Blogs and social postings provide opportunities for collaboration and communication
  • Keeps students informed and up to date with topical, real-world news events
  • Helps to build confidence in students who are less willing to share ideas in a classroom setting3

When it comes to media though there is some pushback on trust and fake news. Pew Research Center conducted a global survey about public trust in news media. When asked whether the news media are doing very/somewhat well at reporting political issues fairly, only 47% of Americans responded affirmatively. Only 56% of that same sample responded affirmatively when asked if news media are reporting news accurately. These numbers are not shockingly different from other countries like the UK or France, as well.4

There is valuable knowledge to be gained through social media such as analytics and insights on various topics or issues for study purposes. Social media is also a medium where students can establish beneficial connections for their careers. As an educational institution, it is crucial to be active in many social platforms possible, this helps create better student training strategies and shapes student culture.5

Media literacy merits a place in teacher education because it encourages critical thinking in a media-dominated age (Schwarz, 2001)8 13. This also engages students more and makes connections between life and school. It is not enough for students just to become media literate. Teachers must model media literacy for their students also.

In 1999, 99 percent of teachers in the United States had access to a computer in their schools, and 84 percent had one or more computers in their classrooms.8

Everyone sharing one common pool of knowledge where no one man is smarter than the next and all information is equally available to both.8

Media can help and hinder in an educational environment, but as long as its use is monitored by someone who is media literate there should be limited problems.8

It’s clear that the benefits outweigh the cons. But the key to technology in the classroom is always going to be the teacher-student relationship, because that’s where the education happens. Technology can be a highly effective tool, but that’s all it is — a tool. In today’s hyper-connected world, sensible use of technology can enhance education.

The uses of technology are widespread. Technology is not meant to replace the teacher. Rather, the idea is to create a flexible learning environment that breeds innovation. It shifts the classroom experience from the ‘sage-on-a-stage’ approach to a more collaborative learning environment. The success of such endeavors will ultimately depend upon how technology is applied to keep students engaged.3

It can be frustrating and time-consuming, but in the end, technology in education can open doors to new experiences, new discoveries, and new ways of learning and collaborating.9

Even if technology is available and people have the necessary e-literacy skills, there is no guarantee that technology alone can create a quality learning environment. Research shows that “blended learning” is more successful. This is where students experience a mix of face-to-face and online education – it recognizes that not all students learn the same way.10  The information retention rates for students enrolled in an eLearning program are up to 60% better than they are in a typical lecture-based classroom environment.14

The internet has allowed for a plethora of technological tools to come into the classroom as well. Instead of watching an educational television program, students can now play interactive games and compete with one another to further the learning process.12 Gamification is growing in the classroom.

CEO of Silicon Schools Brian Greenberg says that evolving technology doesn’t undermine a teacher’s role in the classroom; instead, it augments it.11

“Technology is important, but it’s really just the means to an end,” Greenberg said. “The real magic is in giving great educators freedom and license into how school works.”11

“The real purpose of education is for the brain to be empowered with information,” said Brian Greenberg. “We’re teaching students to learn to think, to learn to learn, and to critically assess a situation.”11

“Cooperative education takes seriously the social and reciprocal nature of teaching and learning. It empowers teachers to relinquish authoritarian control, and encourages them to weave their expertise into the community of learning that emerges dynamically in the courses they teach.” 7

The role of media such as the internet and social media, is constantly growing and changing, thus educators must stay with the times and keep up by using these tools for their students. With the help of new media power teachers would be more able to offer students information from around the world at an even faster and easier rate.8

These are exciting times for teachers and users of technology and despite the cons, technology is here to stay and traditional learning is changing. Managing it properly in the classroom is the key to success and educators need to be aware of their role and ensure that they are ahead of the curve so they can provide a better classroom learning experience and build on the concept of learning by doing and student focused learning.

References

1. Role of Media in the Development of Education Dr. Radhika Kapur PDF retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/323725768_Role_of_Media_in_the_Development_of_Education

 2.The Use of Media in Teaching –  Website retrieved from https://dianingpadmi.wordpress.com/eedduuccaattiioonn/the-use-of-media-in-teaching-learning-process/

3. Using Media Effectively in the Classroom Hannah Creelman Website retrieved from https://elearn.eb.com/blog/using-media-effectively-classroom/

4. The Importance of Media Literacy in the Classroom – Dillon Stone Tatum – Website retrieved from https://www.e-ir.info/2018/07/21/the-importance-of-media-literacy-in-the-classroom/

5. The Role of Social Media in Education London College of International Business Studies Khanyie Dlamini Website retrieved from https://www.lcibs.co.uk/the-role-of-social-media-in-education/

6. Social Media in Education Website – Wikipedia retrieved fromhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_media_in_education

7. Digital Media in Education Website – Wikipedia retrieved from   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_media_in_education

 8. The Role of Media in Education Website – Wikipedia retrieved from https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/The_American_School/The_Role_of_Media_in_Education  

9. 6 Pros and Cons of Technology in the Classroom Vawn Himmelsbach  Website retrieved from  https://tophat.com/blog/6-pros-cons-technology-classroom/

10 Technology and Education Website retrieved from https://theirworld.org/explainers/technology-and-education

11. How Technology is shaping the future of Education Website Business Insider retrieved from https://www.businessinsider.com/how-technology-is-shaping-the-future-of-education-2017-12

12. 23 Advantages and Disadvantages of Technology for Education Brandon Gaille – Website Retrieved from  https://brandongaille.com/23-advantages-disadvantages-technology-education/

13. The Role of Media Literacy in Teaching Education Schwarz, Gretchen, (2001). Teacher Education Quarterly, Wikipedia Website Retrieved from  https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/The_American_School/The_Role_of_Media_in_Education 

14. 47 E Learning Statistics and Trends Website Retrieved https://brandongaille.com/47-elearning-industry-statistics-and-trends/

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Wedding Day Abu Dhabi 2014

PIDP 3250 Instructional Strategies

The Instructional Strategies course provides participants with the opportunity to experience a variety of instructional strategies and techniques which they can apply to their own teaching practice. Participants will develop and adapt motivational strategies to better engage their students. They will also learn how to manage classrooms and handle difficult situations in a respectful, professional manner. Participants will use creative techniques and frameworks to help their students learn how to learn and how to think critically and creatively.

Motivation Report

PDIP 3250 Instructional Strategies

Assignment 1

April 20th 2017

AS AN OVERALL TEACHING STRATEGY: YOU SHOULD CREATE THE CONDITIONS THAT WILL *ELICIT THE BEHAVIOUR THAT YOU WANT FROM YOUR CLASS OR AN INDIVIDUAL STUDENT. – The English Teacher1

The will to win, the desire to succeed, the urge to reach your full potential… these are the keys that will unlock the door the door to personal excellence8.

Confucius

PIDP 3250 Instructional Strategies – Motivation Report

Motivation is critical to the achievement of any task and teaching is no exception. As teachers, we need to motivate students to succeed and excel.

To do this, we need to build an environment that will enable this to happen as noted in the quote that I used in my classroom management report as well, as it is so appropriate. You need to build a motivating environment for student success. It is the same as with K-12 students but with some differences2. Many of our students want to be there in the classroom participating and achieving success and not because they must, but the same lessons apply.

Being effective in the classroom is a combination of numerous, very important ingredients such as: subject matter expertise, classroom management, understanding of learning theories and motivation as well being open to new ideas and developing your own personal style based on experience and training such as this Diploma that we are taking. There is lots of motivation for me to improve and be the best that I can be in the classroom.

What is the context for your teaching

The course that I am going to discuss today is Entrepreneurship (EP2150) which is an introductory course of three the last of which is a Business Planning capstone. It is always fun to teach because the students are majors in Human Resources, Accounting and Marketing so there is a diverse group of students. This makes it one of my favourite courses. I talk about some of the heroes of modern day business such as Sir Richard Branson at Virgin and the late Steve Jobs of Apple fame because they are interested in their products. I use numerous stories and examples of Entrepreneurs and ask them to complete an Entrepreneurship profile which we discuss as a class. I always like to “keep it real”” by discussing current events and how they illustrate key learnings.

How do you motivate students at the beginning of the course?

The key is to get to know the students at the beginning of the semester. Although I do have the opportunity to get to know them because I have had the opportunity to teach many of them before in lower level or equivalent level courses. There are several things that I do to motivate them at the start of the semester.

a) All About You – this gives me the opportunity to ask them lots of questions from general to personal questions and I provide a copy here – All About You

b) Course Outline – it is critical to go through this slowly and precisely so the students know exactly what needs to be done for success. We often have Common Assessments to manage and our results are compared here with those of College of the North Atlantic in Newfoundland as part of our quality control and Accreditation. Last semester I had 2 common assessments which require high, medium, low submissions with the prescribed rubric as well as all the students marks in each of the learning assessments. My example here is from EP2200 Business Planning. Not for EP2150 Entrepreneurship but same style and design and probably my best one so far.

c) Expectations – Their Expectations and Expectations of me – I provide a copy here – Expectations.

I try to do some ice breakers and get the students to get to know each other and decide on their groups in the best possible fashion which is usually them choosing their groups. I like to have a maximum of four in a group although this is not always possible because of male and females not wanting to work together etc. There are many cultural challenges to forming effective groups but my experience is that groups that choose themselves are more prone to success.

How do you motivate students at the middle of the course?

I like to have a solid lesson plan for each of my classes. I always write the plan on the board and use the lesson plan with the projector. I use the BOPPS model and like to focus on the learner in the classroom and check to ensure that they are following the material by asking questions and checking for clarity. I have an example of one lesson plan here for EP2150.

Learning is an active process in which learners construct new ideas or concepts based upon their current/past knowledge, social interactions, and motivation affect the construction. I like the ideas promoted through the Theory of Constructivism4,5.

Constructivism promotes a more open-ended learning experience where the methods and results of learning are not easily measured and may not be the same for each learner. Our classroom is very diverse with different ways of learning as well as other skills relating to language, cognitive reasoning, culture issues and special needs which need to be recognized by the teacher4.

Constructivism focuses on how learners construct their own meaning.  They ask questions, develop answers and interact and interpret the environment.  By doing these things, they incorporate new knowledge with prior knowledge to create new meanings4.

In summary Constructivism is seen by educational theorists as a paradigm or worldview posits that learning is an active, constructive process. The learner is an information constructor. People actively construct or create their own subjective representations of objective reality. New information is linked to prior knowledge; thus mental representations are subjective. Using this technique in the class is a very effective way of engaging learners and achieving positive results4,5.  

I also want to reduce their Cognitive Dissonance. We discussed this in some detail in several of our courses in the Diploma Program because it is so important to know. While not a theory of motivation, per se, the theory of cognitive dissonance proposes that people have a motivational drive to reduce dissonance. The cognitive miser perspective makes people want to justify things in a simple way in order to reduce the effort they put into cognition. They do this by changing their attitudes, beliefs, or actions, rather than facing the inconsistencies, because dissonance is a mental strain. Dissonance is also reduced by justifying, blaming, and denying. It is one of the most influential and extensively studied theories in social psychology.

Managing expectations in education is also important as we move through the middle of the course and the first midterm and we usually discuss Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs7.

Expectancy Theory is very interesting:

Expectancy theory was proposed by Victor H. Vroom in 1964. Expectancy theory explains the behavior process in which an individual selects a behavior option over another, and why/how this decision is made in relation to their goal7.

There’s also an equation for this theory which goes as follows:

M = E × I × V  or

Motivation = Expectancy × Instrumentality × Valence

M (Motivation) is the amount an individual will be motivated by the condition or environment they placed themselves in. Which is based from the following hence the equation.

E (Expectancy) is the person’s perception that effort will result in performance. In other words, it’s the person assessment of how well and what kind of effort will relate in better performance.

I (Instrumentality) is the person’s perception that performance will be rewarded or punished.

V (Valence) is the perceived amount of the reward or punishment that will result from the performance7.

How can you establish inclusion in your class?

I like to ask the students questions as we go through the PowerPoints and get a discussion of the material as well as tie the learnings into their previous materials and courses. I check for clarity with the students and sometimes I review before I move on. This is a powerful motivator for the students as I am actively engaging them in the material. As we note when we discuss motivation, students react positively when they feel that they are in control of their learning and that they can reach their learning goals and have a desire to master the material and not just get good grades7. I often try to discuss things one on one with students and try and walk around the class to check in as much as I can.

How can you develop students intrinsic motivation?

I work hard to get the students interested in the material by providing real life examples from the news that they can relate to for example. The discuss of the Samsung 7 and its battery problem which was widely covered was very successful. Real life examples motivates them. First a definition of Motivation:

Motivation is a theoretical construct used to explain behaviour. It gives the reason for people’s actions, desires, and needs. Motivation can also be defined as one’s direction to behavior, or what causes a person to want to repeat a behavior and vice versa. A motive is what prompts the person to act in a certain way, or at least develop an inclination for specific behavior. According to Maehr and Meyer, “Motivation is a word that is part of the popular culture as few other psychological concepts are.”] 7

Intrinsic motivation has been studied since the early 1970s.

Intrinsic motivation is the self-desire to seek out new things and new challenges, to analyze one’s capacity, to observe and to gain knowledge7.

It is driven by an interest or enjoyment in the task itself, and exists within the individual rather than relying on external pressures or a desire for consideration. The phenomenon of intrinsic motivation was first acknowledged within experimental studies of animal behavior. In these studies, it was evident that the organisms would engage in playful and curiosity driven behaviors in the absence of reward. Intrinsic motivation is a natural motivational tendency and is a critical element in cognitive, social, and physical development. Students who are intrinsically motivated are more likely to engage in the task willingly as well as work to improve their skills, which will increase their capabilities. Students are likely to be intrinsically motivated if they7:

  • attribute their educational results to factors under their own control, also known as autonomy or locus of control
  • believe they have the skills to be effective agents in reaching their desired goals, also known as self-efficacy beliefs
  • are interested in mastering a topic, not just in achieving good grades

An example of intrinsic motivation is when an employee becomes an IT professional because he or she wants to learn about how computer users interact with computer networks. The employee has the intrinsic motivation to gain more knowledge. Art for art’s sake is an example of intrinsic motivation in the domain of art.7

Conversely, extrinsic motivation comes from influences outside of the individual. In extrinsic motivation, the harder question to answer is where do people get the motivation to carry out and continue to push with persistence. Usually extrinsic motivation is used to attain outcomes that a person wouldn’t get from intrinsic motivation. Common extrinsic motivations are rewards (for example money or grades) for showing the desired behavior, and the threat of punishment following misbehavior. Competition is an extrinsic motivator because it encourages the performer to win and to beat others, not simply to enjoy the intrinsic rewards of the activity. A cheering crowd and the desire to win a trophy are also extrinsic incentives7.

What is one particular motivation theory you ascribe to and why?

I like the idea of Intrinsic Motivation as a theory of motivational theory for the following advantages and disadvantages.

Advantages: Intrinsic motivation can be long-lasting and self-sustaining. Efforts to build this kind of motivation are also typically efforts at promoting student learning. Such efforts often focus on the subject rather than rewards or punishments.

Disadvantages: Efforts at fostering intrinsic motivation can be slow to affect behavior and can require special and lengthy preparation. Students are individuals, so a variety of approaches may be needed to motivate different students. It is often helpful to know what interests one’s students so as to connect these interests with the subject matter. This requires getting to know one’s students. Also, it helps if the instructor is interested in the subject7.

In conclusion, motivation is critical as a key component of your tool set for a successful classroom. Understanding your students and their needs, being comfortable with the material and taking time to make the students are in control of their learning and focusing on intrinsic motivation where the students feel the long-lasting effects of the learning build, is critical to success. Motivating your students is a key to success and there is nothing better than seeing them interested in more knowledge. It is what makes teaching such a great career.

References

1. The English Teacher – Web Site – http://teacher2b.com/strategies/teachstr.htm

2. How to Motivate Students – 12 Top Ways – Web Site – http://www.teachhub.com/top-12-ways-motivate-students

3. Brookfield, Stephen D. The Skillful Teacher 3rd Edition Jossey Bass 2915

4. Learning Theories – Web Site –http://teachinglearningresources.pbworks.com/w/page/19919565/Learning%20Theories    

5. Learning Theories – Web Sitehttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constructivism_(philosophy_of_education)

6. Merriam, S.B., & Bierema, L.L. (2014). Jossey-Bass Adult Learning: Linking Theory and Practice.

7. Motivation – Web Site – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Motivation

8. Motivational Quotes – Web Site – https://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/topics/topic_motivational.html

9. Barkley, Elizabeth F., Student Engagement Techniques – A Handbook for College Faculty Jossey Bass 2010 – John Wiley and Sons

Related Documents – Attached

1) All About You

2) Course Outline EP2200 – Business Planning – Example Only

3) Expectations

4) BOPPS Lesson Plan – Entrepreneurship EP2150

Classroom Management Report – Interview

PDIP 3250 Instructional Strategies

Assignment 2

April 20th 2017

AS AN OVERALL TEACHING STRATEGY: YOU SHOULD CREATE THE CONDITIONS THAT WILL *ELICIT THE BEHAVIOUR THAT YOU WANT FROM YOUR CLASS OR AN INDIVIDUAL STUDENT. – The English Teacher2

PIDP 3250 Instructional Strategies – Classroom Management Report

I have had numerous personal experiences regarding Classroom Management Challenges”” and during the course I discussed John Doe – the sleeper with my colleague Mark Lavin.

I choose however to talk to one on my experienced colleagues, who has many years of teaching here in Qatar as I seek ideas in this program to improve my teaching skills. I spoke with my colleague Helen LaRusic and I was aptly rewarded with some interesting ideas, regarding classroom management.

Brief Bio of Helen LaRusic

Helen teaches accounting, and is an Accountant with a CMA and CPA designation. She also holds an MBA from St. Mary’s University. Helen has been teaching part-time since 1991 when she first started with CMA preparatory sessions in Nova Scotia and then in Bermuda for over 15 years. In 1998 Helen then started teaching part time, at St. Mary’s University her old Alma Mater in subjects such as Math for accountants and MS Office. These experiences helped her develop her hard and soft skills, and she said they were important days in her development of her teaching skills and techniques for classroom management, due to the diversity of the students at a lower level of complexity. These students were not as focused as the students she now teaches – Managerial Accounting and Oil and Gas accounting, Case Analysis and other challenging and interesting courses. In 2006 Helen saw the opportunity to come to the Middle East, and joined the College of the North Atlantic – Qatar full time where she first started teaching diverse subjects like Organizational Behaviour and the Accounting and Case Courses. Helen is coming up to her 11th year at CNAQ, and has lots of interesting stories to share from over the years. The following are a few of her favourite anecdotes.

Describe the Situation – Getting Started, talking in class

Helen feels that the first few weeks are the important ones, in terms of classroom management. She believes in starting right away and making sure that all students have calculators and textbooks the first day of class. Often the first class can be distracting and the students are not paying attention and talking. Helen notes that it is accounting so you should be doing accounting and not talking about it. (Talking in class needs to be appropriate to the situation as in a language class and some of our business classes – talking is a good thing4,5,7). Helen notes, as does the research I found, that there are many techniques to managing classroom talking which disrupts the learning process –

“There are multiple teacher strategies to control talking in the class. Each teacher has his or her own trick of the trade. Since there is no one way that works perfectly, then knowing several approaches to the problem helps create a peace-filled classroom.” 1

How the situation was handled

One technique she uses is just to stop talking and wait…………wait……..wait……..….(take your time she says for impact – silence gives better results – let them process). Another technique is to ask the offenders” to talk outside. Another technique is to ask permission to continue -“May I continue”?. This puts the offenders” on the spot which is something they do not like in this culture where loss of face is so important6. (An Arab will rarely admit to an error if it will cause loss of face6.). Another thing is challenging is when they speak in Arabic in class (perhaps for good reason as Helen notes) but it can be a challenge as our students come from Qatar and over 30 countries. Helen then starts speaking in Finnish which gets their attention! They stop talking and she explains to them that her first language is Finnish and not English and she asks them “what should we do? perhaps speak in English? All of us?” She says it is a technique that works well.

What would the instructor do differently

Helen learned her techniques through experience and what works for her. Helen notes that these techniques for talking and classroom management put her in charge of the situation at the get – go, as she says and it works for her. Many of her courses as they are accounting, mean that there needs to be lots of time tackling the examples in the book and the classroom handouts. Helen says that “getting them to hunker down early and not interrupt the class is critical to future success as the course develops and the subject matter gets more challenging”. These lessons that challenge the offenders also result in respect for Helen in the classroom and she is regarded as an excellent teacher. As we discussed the flip side is that sometimes you really want them to talk such as when you are tackling cases etc. A good teacher adapts to the situation to make it the most productive and meaningful for all participants.

Other tips

Helen noted that she always likes to learn new thing as they relate to all aspects of teaching as she noted “there are always things that you can learn. It is important to do examples from the book everyday so you can ensure they purchase the textbook and get involved with the courses. Helen says “Accounting is about repeating the procedures until you know them cold – there are no shortcuts” and she tries to do a few examples each day.

She also commented that she likes to let them choose their own projects for Group work or grab and index card with a number on it – in this way it “the will of God or fate – Inshallah” as opposed to us choosing groups. (Fatalism based on religious beliefs is very common6,8,9.) (This works well in this culture and we also have to be careful mixing men and women in groups, (although I have had excellent experiences doing this if the group is well balanced with expats.)

These were all excellent ideas that Helen provided and I appreciate her experience and ideas.

Also I found a few others that could prove helpful to reduce students talking:

Other Ideas1

Some other options that help keep talking to a minimum include:

  • Changing students seats – sometimes separating to chatters is all that needs to be done
    • Giving students extra work to do – crossword puzzles, wordsearch, Sudoko, books to read, etc.
      • Circulating the room during quiet work – sometimes the presence of the teacher beside a talker will stop the disturbances before they happen
        • Stop Talking – when the teacher stops talking, waiting for silence, students notice
        • Quiet Game – allow students to talk for 3-5 minutes, once time is up, students work silently – teacher times the length of their quiet work (Since this is a game, have a prize that students receive after they complete several periods of quiet work.)

Note: Students often talk because they finish their work quickly or they are bored. Supply these students with a basket or area where they find extra credit work to complete. The result is a win/win solution1.

References

  1. Teacher Strategies to Controlling Talking in the Classroom – Web Site http://www.brighthubeducation.com/classroom-management/28981-strategies-to-control-talking-in-class/  
  2. The English Teacher – Web Site – http://teacher2b.com/strategies/teachstr.htm
  3. The English Teacher: Stop Excessive Talking – Web Site – http://teacher2b.com/strategies/stoptalk.htm
  4. In Language Classes we should be talking – Web Site – https://www.edutopia.org/blog/in-language-classrooms-students-should-be-talking-sarah-wike-loyola
  5. The Talking Classroom – Developing Oral Language Skills Within the Classroom – Judi Denson – excellent reference site – Web Site http://msreedsclass.weebly.com/uploads/3/2/8/3/3283009/thetalkingclassroom.pdf
  6. Understanding Arabic Culture – Web Site – http://freerepublic.com/focus/news/747968/posts
  7. Why Talk is important in the classroom – Web Site – http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/108035/chapters/Why-Talk-Is-Important-in-Classrooms.aspx
  8. The Essential Guide to Arabic Customs & Culture for the Business Traveler – Web site – http://www.uklinkology.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/Arabic_Customs.pdf
  9. Basic Background about Arab Culture, Islam, and the Middle East – Web Site – http://www.montgomeryschoolsmd.org/uploadedFiles/curriculum/socialstudies/features/background_9-11-01.pdf

Instructional Strategies Report

PDIP 3250 Instructional Strategies

Assignment 3

Banana Island Doha
Brunch in Doha
Corniche – Doha
Dune Bashing in Qatar
Katara, Doha
Museum of Islamic Art, Doha
Sheik Faisal Museum Qatar
Souk Waqif – The Standing Souk, Doha

April 22nd 2017

PIDP 3250 Instructional Strategies – Instructional Strategies

What is the strategy

Mark and I presented a set called Field Trips from the wonderful book “called Student Engagement Techniques by Elizabeth Barkley”” but as a result of the challenges of going on an actual Field Trip we developed a virtual field trip to help identify the key tourist attractions of Doha for a class taking a Tourism Marketing course.

We developed an interactive game using a Cootie Catcher that students enjoyed to help them select their Top 8 places to see in Doha or the joke went “that they could choose them logically as opposed to the random selection of them by the Cootie Catcher.”

The final accurate solution based on data, Trip Advisor and previous experience was the following order for the Top 8 activities in Doha –

1 Souq Waqif – Haggle your way around Souq Waqif
2 MIA. Wander around the Museum of Islamic Art
3 Dune-bash your way to the inland sea
4 Sheikh Faisal – See prehistoric remains

5 Banana Island – Spend a long weekend at Banana Island Resort

6 Katara. Hunt down the city’s best Karak

7 Corniche. Walk, run or cycle along the Corniche

8 Brunch. Hit a blow-out brunch

SET 34 – Field Trips – Mark Lavin and Peter Robertson

Essential Characteristics

PRIMARY MODE                     Collaborative active learning

ACTIVITY FOCUS                     Visiting a Site

DURATION OF ACTIVITY        Single Session

ONLINE TRANSFERABILITY     High

DESCRIPTION

AND PURPOSE

Groups of students visit an off-campus location for first-hand observation or research. Field trips provide students with a course-related experience that cannot be replicated in the classroom. Going to physical locations such as research laboratories, medical facilities, museums, art exhibits, environmental centers, or sites with unique geological or botanical characteristics help students understand the value and meaning of what they are learning in the classroom as well as see how this knowledge can be applied in different and novel situations. Finally, going off-campus can also be a refreshing change of pace and provide an opportunity for students to bond together as a learning community1.

STEP-BY-STEP

DIRECTIONS

1. Because field trips take students off campus, there are increased expenses and risks. To mitigate liability, most institutions have formalized field trip procedures that require preapproval of forms. Places that are not generally open to the public and that may put students at some level of risk (such as prisons and hospitals) may require students to sign waivers. Therefore, as a first step, check your institution’s policies and procedures so that you know requirements regarding field trips1.

2. Attend to basic planning details.

a. Contact the appropriate host site personnel to determine that the location is open to group visits and to see if staff can provide support, such as arranging for guided tours, special presentations, or access to areas not normally available to the public.

b. If possible, visit the site yourself so that you can uncover any potential problems in advance.

c. Work with host site staff to select the date and time.

d. Prepare students by alerting them to any additional costs, appropriate dress codes (for example, in medical or research facilities), standards of behavior, and so forth.

e. Determine how students will travel (on their own? car pool? institution- provided buses or minivans?). Consider forming students into groups with a leader who will be responsible for communicating with you via cell phone.

3. Craft a follow-up activity such as whole class discussion or a written essay that guides students to reflect upon what they have learned and connect the field trip experience to what they have learned or are learning in class1.

EXAMPLES

Course – Introduction to Tourism and Things to Do in Qatar

The Diploma program in Marketing aims at providing entrepreneurial and management expertise to prospective professionals in the tourism and services industry.  It is a blend of theory, specialist knowledge and practice on current management issues within local, regional, national and international tourism businesses and services organization.

This is a particularly niche area for Qatar as it prepares itself to host the Football World Cup in 2022 in addition to its vision to position itself as a tourist destination.

Today we will take you through a virtual tour of Doha and Qatar.

ONLINE                                           

IMPLEMENTATION

 If your course enrolls only students who live locally, you can prepare for and implement this SET in much the same way you would for a face-to-face class. To minimize logistical challenges, consider creating worksheets and then telling students to visit the site on their own. Or consider creating a

forum and encouraging students to coordinate with peers to visit the site in small groups. Alternatively, create a virtual field trip (see Variations and Extensions)1.

VARIATIONS AND EXTENSIONS

Organize a virtual field trip to one of the many Web sites created for this purpose. Virtual Field Trips (http://www.internet4classrooms.com/vft.htm ) is a comprehensive clearinghouse for site information on 100+ locations from all around the world1.

Assign individual students or student teams with topics to research on the field trip for which they must gather information, take digital photos, and then summarize and display their findings on a series of presentation slides. Either combine the slides into a single presentation to serve as the stimulus for a whole-class discussion, or ask students to conduct their own presentations.

OBSERVATIONS AND ADVICE

Field trips generally take place outside of regular class meeting times, and since most students have intense schedules involving other classes, work obligations, internships, and domestic responsibilities, one of the challenging aspects of organizing a field trip is finding a time that everyone can meet. Do your best to find a date and time that works for most students, but then simply provide alternative assignments for students who cannot participate due to scheduling conflicts. This also addresses unforeseen circumstances where students cannot participate due to illness or emergencies.

The larger the class, the more difficult it is to organize field trips. Consider dividing a large class into multiple smaller groups and staggering the scheduling of the trip. If the logistical aspects of organizing the trip seem overwhelming, create worksheets or field trip guides and give students responsibility for visiting the sites on their own either individually or in small groups but within a specified time framework.

Why do you like the strategy

I am a big fan of the learning that is provided by a Field Trip as it keeps the students seeing real life examples of their learning experiences. Students like the hands-on learning experience and seem to enjoy the opportunity to engage in a new way.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of the strategy?

Advantages

Real life learnings that can’t be replicated in the classroom

Engaging, refreshing change of pace, active collaborative learning

Fun, learning that is real and an inclusive activity

Disadvantages

Time consuming and observations noted above

Extensive planning required

Can represent cultural challenges in Qatar

Risk       

…………………………………a virtual Field Trip can solve some of these issues

Field Trips are in the decline for many K-12 students for a variety of reasons –

“The decision to reduce culturally enriching field trips reflects a variety of factors. Financial pressures force schools to make difficult decisions about how to allocate scarce resources, and field trips are increasingly seen as an unnecessary frill. Greater focus on raising student performance on math and reading standardized tests may also lead schools to cut field trips. Some schools believe that student time would be better spent in the classroom preparing for the exams. When schools do organize field trips, they are increasingly choosing to take students on trips to reward them for working hard to improve their test scores rather than to provide cultural enrichment. Schools take students to amusement parks, sporting events, and movie theaters instead of to museums and historical sites. This shift from “enrichment” to “reward” field trips is reflected in a generational change among teachers about the purposes of these outings. In a 2012‒13 survey we conducted of nearly 500 Arkansas teachers, those who had been teaching for at least 15 years were significantly more likely to believe that the primary purpose of a field trip is to provide a learning opportunity, while more junior teachers were more likely to see the primary purpose as “enjoyment3.”

Virtual Field Trips are becoming more common as a result.

A paper presented at a conference on this had this to conclude about Virtual Field Trips –

Abstract

Virtual field trips can provide meaningful experiences for students through 21st century teaching practices that permit learning to be authentic, creative, inquiry-based and student-centered. A virtual field trip is a field trip to another environment, whether real or simulated, through the Internet. It is NOT just a visit to some pictures on a web site. Similar to a “live” field trip to a museum or nature center, a virtual field trip engages the student in an experience that one would not normally have in the classroom. The quality of a virtual field trip will very much depend on the creativity and willingness of the teacher to explore the web for appropriate content and web sites. This paper will define the qualities of an effective virtual field trip. A five-stage model will be proposed that helps teacher plan and implement virtual field trips that engage the students and promote higher-order thinking4.

Source 5.

What is the role of the educator and student in the strategy?

It is very clear for the teacher to manage the expectations of the students whether doing a virtual or real field trip. The diagram above is a suggestion in terms of organizing and the emphasis that a Post Trip discussion is crucial.

As discussed field trips generally take place outside of regular class meeting times, and since most students have intense schedules involving other classes, work obligations, internships, and domestic responsibilities, one of the challenging aspects of organizing a field trip is finding a time that everyone can meet. You need to negotiate a good time to have the field trip. The same can be said for the Virtual Field Trip.

There are some good articles on this with the planning before as important as the trip itself.

The role of the organizer/educator is also an important consideration during the trip stage. Although monitoring and management of the experience is important, monitoring participant learning is also a major organizer responsibility. Throughout the field trip, the organizer should be actively engaged in teaching activities. However, on field trips the organizer should utilize different teaching approaches than those used in traditional classroom settings. Organizers should interact with participants to help answer questions they might have. Organizers should also initiate discussion with small groups of participants by asking them questions. During field trips, organizers should function more as facilitators or guides rather than directors. By playing an active rather than a passive role during the field trip, organizers can increase student interest and learning5.”

For the student they need to be involved beforehand as the article notes –

“To increase the educational effectiveness of field trips, pre-trip instruction should also focus on the content topics and concepts that participants will be investigating during the field trip. It is important for field trip organizers to give participants verbal clues regarding what to look for during their activities. Pre-trip instruction makes it easier for participants to focus on the educational goals of the trip. As part of pre-trip lessons, organizers should demonstrate the use of any equipment and explain in detail any activities that will be occurring during the field trip5.”

In conclusion, it is important to be organized in the pursuit of successful field trip whether it is local and virtual. Being prepared and managing risks as noted in the discussion above is critical.

Successful field trips are made not born and good preparation will make a Field Trip a rewarding experience for the educator and the student.

Planning and organizing a successful field trip can be a great deal of work for the organizer. However, by following the simple steps in each of the pre-trip, trip, and post-trip stages, your participants can greatly benefit from your labor. Also when a well-developed field trip plan is presented to administrators, many of their concerns are usually addressed. Field trips should be an integral part of extension programming. If county faculty properly plan and execute educational field trips everyone can benefit from the experience5”.

References

1. Barkley, Elizabeth F., Student Engagement Techniques – A Handbook for College Faculty Jossey Bass 2010 – John Wiley and Sons P. 296

2. Brookfield, Stephen D. The Skillful Teacher 3rd Edition Jossey Bass 2915

3. The Educational Value of Field Trips – Web Site – http://educationnext.org/the-educational-value-of-field-trips/

4. Using Virtual Field Trips as a 21st Century Teaching and Learning Tool – Web Site – https://www.learntechlib.org/p/22650 from Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference, Mar 19, 2006 in Orlando, Florida, USA ISBN 978-1-880094-58-7 Publisher: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE), Chesapeake, VA

5. Effective Use of Field Trips in Educational Programming: A Three Stage Approach  – Web Site – https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/WC/WC05400.pdf and http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/wc054  

6. Out of the Classroom and into the city – Web Site https://courses.lumenlearning.com/wmreadinganthology/chapter/out-of-the-classroom-and-into-the-city-the-use-of-field-trips-as-an-experiential-learning-tool-in-teacher-education/

Related Documents

1) Cootie Catcher – Top 8 in Doha – Peter and Mark

2) PowerPoint Presentation

3) Instructions – Doha and Qatar – Handout Exercise

4) Doha Tourist Guide Handbook v1 Prize

Beaver Smith – The Dhows in the morning….Doha, Qatar
Rehydration Run 2015 Abu Dhabi
Bali 2017

Reflective Writing

PDIP 3250 Instructional Strategies

Assignment 4 #1

April 22nd 2017

PIDP 3250 Instructional Strategies – Reflective Writing

Objective

Brophy defines motivation in the classroom as “the level of enthusiasm and the degree to which students invest attention and effort in learning1” (2004 P. 4)

Reflective

This is very interesting to me as motivation as noted in our “Student Engagement Book” is the portal to engagement. Together with motivation, engagement is viewed in the literature as very important for enhanced learning outcomes of all students. Motivation is seen as a pre-requisite of and a necessary element for student engagement in learning. Student engagement in learning is not only an end in itself but it is also a means to the end of students achieving sound academic outcomes2.

It all starts with motivation. Motivation in this definition implies an internal state a concept that differs considerably from the external manipulation of rewards and punishment that was emphasized in the early studies by behaviourists1.

Interpretive

Understanding what and how to motivate learners is the topic of many conversations between both instructors and employers. Behaviorist models propose that instructors should emphasize the positive behavior in learners (attentiveness in class, careful work on assignments, thoughtful and frequent contributions to discussion1) this provides a benchmark for all learners in the classroom to aspire to. The principles of Behaviorism permeate the classroom and the criticism is that this focuses on extrinsic rewards, bribes and situational compliance.   Awareness of the issues however can help you use incentives.

Motivating students is important—without it, teachers have no point of entry. But it is engagement that is critical, because the level of engagement over time is the vehicle through which classroom instruction influences student outcomes7. Focus on quality not quantity.

Cognitive models of the 1960s brought in Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs where when learners basic human needs such as food, water, shelter and safety are met then the learner can commit themselves to higher learning1. The goals theory where instructors establish supportive relationships and cooperative collaborative learning arrangements that encourage students to adopt learning goals (trying to learn whatever the instructors task is designed to teach them) instead of performance goals (preserving self-perception or public reputation as capable individuals1).

In this theory, learners will not have the fear of failure and will learn purposeful and significant learning that is pertinent to their place of employment.

If the learning is pertinent to their practice, they will value the learning and understand the goals of the learning. Building up self-esteem by providing positive timely feedback that allows the learner to gain confidence, make the learning relevant to the workplace and providing supports that sustain the learner to continue to be motivated with the new learning are some of the things that I will encourage in my classroom.


Gaining insight into how learners are motivated will assist an instructor to create a positive and secure environment that will motivate the learner to participate and gain the most from the learning experience.

Decisional

There is a role for me as an educator to create an environment where students are motivated to learn but at the same time they need to come to the table as this quote notes.

I believe that teaching is an equal partnership between instructor and learner and a process of exploration, one which works best when both parties make firm commitments for their own roles and have clear expectations of each other.

I found this in my research of teaching philosophies from Ryerson University in Canada.

 “I typically begin new courses by making explicit this social contract between me and my students using some variant of the following to provoke discussion: 

 I will 

• Provide the opportunity to learn • Respect your investment of time and money • Deliver value added content in every class

You will 

• Contribute to your own learning outcome • Respect my investment of time and effort • Prepare adequately for every class

Because I view education as this equal partnership, I do not subscribe to a “consumer” model of education. I have expectations of students and hold them accountable to meet them, and I encourage them to hold me equally accountable to meet my commitments to them4.”

For the instruction that I provide, I identify with the values and expectancy model of motivation, which speaks about engagement as an important component. Teachers can increase student motivation by taking steps to increase the value of the learning to students and helping students hold optimistic and positive expectations about their ability to succeed1.

References

1. Barkley, Elizabeth F., Student Engagement Techniques – A Handbook for College Faculty Jossey Bass 2010 – John Wiley and Sons P. 9, 10, 14

2. How Motivation Influences Student Engagement: A Qualitative Case Study – Web Site – http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1081372.pdf

3. Brookfield, Stephen D. The Skillful Teacher 3rd Edition Jossey Bass 2915

4. Teaching Philosophy – Web Site – http://www.ryerson.ca/content/dam/lt/programs/workshops/teaching-phil2016.pdf

5. A Brief Summary of the Best Practices in College Teaching Web Site –http://teaching.uncc.edu/learning-resources/articles-books/best-practice/instructional-methods/best-practices-summary

6. Communication, Affect and Learning in the Classroom – Web Site – https://archive.org/details/CommunicationAffectAndLearningInTheClassroom  

7. Student Motivation, Engagement, and Achievement – Web Site – http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/107034/chapters/Student-Motivation,-Engagement,-and-Achievement.aspx

St Albert, Alberta 2010
Sheik Zayed Mosque Abu Dhabi 2015

Reflective Writing

PDIP 3250 Instructional Strategies

Assignment 4 #2

April 22nd 2017

PIDP 3250 Instructional Strategies – Reflective Writing

Objective

Engagement and Active Learning

Angelo and Cross who wrote “Classroom Assessment Techniques”– “Learning can – and often does – occur without teaching but teaching cannot occur without learning: teaching without learning is just talking1”.

Reflective

I like this quote as this is so important to have learners who are actively engaged in active learning. It is often discussed – active learning means that the mind is engaged and its defining characteristics are that students are dynamic participants in their learning and that they are reflecting on and monitoring both the processes and the results of their learning. An engaged student actively examines, questions and relates new ideas to old, thereby achieving the kind of deep learning that lasts1. It is important to develop the engagement as dropout rates usually relate to lack of engagement and according to a source are as high as 50% in the United States.

“Since the U.S. college dropout rate for first-time-in college degree-seeking students is nearly 50%. It is increasingly seen as an indicator of successful classroom instruction, and as a valued outcome of school reform. The phrase was identified in 1996 as “the latest buzzword in education circles.” Students are engaged when they are involved in their work, persist despite challenges and obstacles, and take visible delight in accomplishing their work. Student engagement also refers to a “student’s willingness, need, desire and compulsion to participate in, and be successful in, the learning process promoting higher level thinking for enduring understanding.” Student engagement is also a usefully ambiguous term that can be used to recognize the complexity of ‘engagement’ beyond the fragmented domains of cognition, behaviour, emotion or affect, and in doing so encompass the historically situated individual within their contextual variables (such as personal and familial circumstances) that at every moment influence how engaged an individual (or group) is in their learning5”.

Engaged students really care about what they’re learning; they want to learn or “When students are engaged, they exceed expectations and go beyond what is required” or “the words that describe student engagement to me are passion and excitement………. The second way many teachers describe student engagement is with statements like engaged students are trying to make meaning of what they are learning or engaged students are involved in the academic task at hand and are using higher-order thinking skills such as analyzing information or solving problems1

Interpretive

The discussion described student engagement from a two-dimensional approach: motivation and active learning. The author mentioned that students are engaged in their learning when they care about what they are learning and they want to learn. When students are engaged, then they exceed expectation. I understand the relationship: students care about their learning → engaged students → students perform at a high level. The question that pops up in my mind as I was reading this was how does an educator get the students to care about their learning and want to learn so that they will be engaged? That’s the more important question.

The second description of student engagement looked at the end product or outcome of what student engagement would lead to. When students are engaged, they will perform better because they use higher order thinking skills to think analytically and critically. The description also stated that “engaged students are trying to make meaning of what they are learning”.  They are trying to derive value from their learning.

The answer to the question presented early is explained in Chapter 2. In the value-expectancy model, students become motivated and engaged when they see value in what they are learning and they expect to succeed. As an educator, we need to draw and present the connection of what we are teaching and how does it relate to the students. We need to show our students the things that they are learning are practical and will affect their future work and life, thus creating intrinsic value for the students. Once the students can connect the dots and see this connection, they will see value in their learning.

As for expectancy, there are classroom management issues (setting the correct expectations of the students; giving regular and useful feedback about their performance etc.) and course planning (the course outline, deliverables, teaching strategies etc.). When students value the tasks and they expect to succeed, they will “engage in the task, eager and happy to focus on developing knowledge and skills by seeking to discover meanings, grasping new insights and generating integrative interpretations”.

Decisional

………teaching without learning is just talking.

Teaching is more like providing knowledge to the students, while learning is more of a two-way channels. In a learning community, the “overarching goal is learning, but this learning is best achieved in environments where students feel a sense of belonging and where they feel comfortable responding to questions even when they are unsure of the answer and seeking help from the teacher or from their peers when they don’t understand1

I think that this quote is excellent to remember as we move later into discussions of the brain and learning.
 
References

1. Barkley, Elizabeth F., Student Engagement Techniques – A Handbook for College Faculty Jossey Bass 2010 – John Wiley and Sons P. 16,  17,  18

2. Communication, Affect and Learning in the Classroom – Web Site – https://archive.org/details/CommunicationAffectAndLearningInTheClassroom  

3. Student Motivation, Engagement, and Achievement – Web Site – http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/107034/chapters/Student-Motivation,-Engagement,-and-Achievement.aspx

4. Active Learning – Web Site – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Active_learning

5. Student Engagement – Web Site – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Student_engagement

Winning at Bedaya Start Up Weekend – we launch our Not Business Now Business Plan and App in 54 hours and came in second and were incubated at QBIC – What a great team
Bedaya Start Up Weekend November 2018
We make empty full – Not Busy Now
Not Busy Now
QBIC Incubation Teams – 3 months of hard work and then Demo Day
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Three hard months of working on our Business Plan for Not Busy Now
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After winning Demo Day April 2019 and winning 100,000 QR
This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is img-20190502-wa0018.jpg
Not Busy Now and the other companies……
Peter and Fahad waiting to hear the results of our 5 minute pitch at Get In The Ring Qatar April 2019 at Mall of Qatar
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Yes – We beat out some tough competitors going through the rounds — Going to Berlin Germany and Representing Qatar in June 2019
Fahad – We won “Get in the Ring” and represented Qatar in Berlin in June 2019

Reflective Writing

PDIP 3250 Instructional Strategies

Assignment 4 #3

April 22nd 2017

PIDP 3250 Instructional Strategies – Reflective Writing

Objective

Engaging Students Through a Combination of Approaches P. 69

On Giving Students a Choice

On Building a Sense of Community in the Classroom

To Ensure all Students participate in the Discussions

Using the Psychomotor Dimension

On Using Technology

Reflective

I like these topics in Chapter 6 as I can relate to the idea that you need different approaches for different classes. Teaching is dynamic, different subjects have different needs and it is good to use different techniques to keep students interested, motivated and engaged.

On Giving Students a Choice

I like to give students some control in the classroom in terms of certain things such as moving my deadlines that are often arbitrary in the first place. Sssshhh!

On Building a Sense of Community in the Classroom

Engagement is critical. I like to engage from Day 1.

“The opposite of engagement is disaffection. Disaffected [students] are passive, do not try hard, and give up easily in the face of challenges… [they can] be bored, depressed, anxious, or even angry about their presence in the classroom; they can be withdrawn from learning opportunities or even rebellious towards teachers and classmates5. “

I always try and keep consistency in the classroom with what I write on the board but I always like to say that “it is your classroom to the students” and that we are here to “learn together”.

I work hard to connect with their lives outside the classroom. They are busy and engaged with other things and they need some help sometimes managing. Some have husbands, babies and family commitments and often have jobs as well as many are sponsored.

Characteristics of learning environment are:

  1. Aligned with constructivist strategies and evolved from traditional philosophies.
  2. Promoting research based learning through investigation and contains authentic scholarly content.
  3. Encouraging leadership skills of the students through self-development activities.
  4. Creating atmosphere suitable for collaborative learning for building knowledgeable learning communities.
  5. Cultivating a dynamic environment through interdisciplinary learning and generating high-profile activities for better learning experience.
  6. Integration of prior knowledge with new ones to incur rich structure of knowledge among the students.
  7. Task based performance enhancement by giving the student’s a realistic practical sense of the subject matter learnt in the classroom4.

I like this article I found relating to this:

In classrooms that promote motivation, teachers continually make connections between texts and the life experiences of students, films, other texts, previous school experiences, and the topic at hand. Before assigning a piece of text to read, teachers provide students with a purpose for reading, and they consciously activate students’ prior knowledge. Teachers use a variety of approaches—demonstration, film, field trips, picture books, discussion—to build students’ background knowledge and regularly ask students to present similarities and contrasts between their own life experiences and what is in the text. For example, students might participate in hands-on activities that they then actively discuss and analyze before completing related reading and writing. Motivation to read and write is enhanced by their new knowledge and experience and by the discussion that precedes the reading and writing. Students feel as though their life experiences are relevant and appreciated and that they are expected to use their own and others’ experiences to make sense of text and content. They view the content they are learning as meaningful and connected, not isolated and foreign. Reading, discussing, analyzing, and creating texts become primary formats for learning and expression6. Establishing a purpose for reading is also related to improved comprehension. When students have a purpose for reading, have adequate background knowledge, and make personal connections to what they are reading, they can persevere through challenging text. Helping students to make connections is essential because student engagement is determined by the personal purpose for reading, the particular texts being read, and the links between the texts and students’ personal circumstances6. Helping students make connections between their own goals and their choices of texts is also important for how students develop the ability to use text to learn6.

To Ensure all Students participate in the Discussions

I like to walk around as I noted in other articles and check in and I also like to speak to everyone as they walk in. I try to get them to speak – sometimes there can be cultural challenges with this – loss of face and not wanting to be wrong – trust and respect required to manage this. I like the idea of index cards as it relates to the idea of fate, that I wrote about is a big part of Arabic culture7 and getting an answer wrong would be taken easier as it was fate and not just academic failure!.

Using the Psychomotor Dimension

I think the story about the girl from France who learned to write eventually after seeing a picture speaks a thousand words – she had been taught in France that the conclusion is the beginning.

On Using Technology

Technology is great but recent research has shown that the “noise” of myriad digital distractions threatens productivity and cognitive complexity in learning. Therefore, academic engagement is as much about selective disengagement—unplugging, as it were—as it is about the decision to focus attention and apply effort6.

Interpretive

I like the multiple ideas presented here – try different things is the story. It makes me want to learn and read more about learning and how to be a more successful teacher.

For example, one extensive review of the literature related to adolescent literacy (Meltzer, 2002; Meltzer & Hamann, 2004) generated three promising practices that teachers can use to motivate students, including English language learners, to read, discuss, and strengthen literacy skills across content areas:

  • making connections to students’ lives, thereby connecting background knowledge and life experiences to the texts to be read and produced;
  • creating safe and responsive classrooms where students are acknowledged, have voice, and are given choices in learning tasks, reading assignments, and topics of inquiry that then strengthen their literacy skills; and
  • having students interact with text and with each other about text in ways that stimulate questioning, predicting, visualizing, summarizing, and clarifying, preferably in the process of completing authentic tasks (tasks with a personal purpose or for a larger audience than the teacher)6.

Decisional – This chapter made me research several things and I find it so interesting –

……… In safe and responsive classrooms, teachers respond to needs for choice and flexibility and offer clear expectations and support for higher achievement. Teachers are also responsive to differing cultural and socioeconomic perspectives, making their appreciation of these perspectives clear through their facilitation of discussion, choices of literature, structuring of assignments, and assessment strategies. Teachers who successfully build upon the multiple literacies that students bring with them to the classroom learn about these literacies and help students understand how the forms of argumentation, categorization, and rhetoric that they commonly use out of school are similar to and different from those commonly encountered in academic texts.

Most important, teachers must understand that engagement feels like a high risk for many students. For those with low literacy self-esteem, the motivation to read and write depends on their judgments regarding whether teachers will give up on them or believe that they are worth the investment of time and encouragement. Teachers who persist in trying to reach resistant or reluctant learners continue to repeat invitations to join in the discussion, valuing small contributions and allowing students to participate at their own pace. Teachers must make clear to students that they care about their learning and their development of literacy skills, as well as their well-being as individuals. It is okay to make mistakes in these classrooms—the teacher acknowledges explicitly that learning is a continuum and that the role of students in a learning community is to improve their own skills and help others to improve theirs. When possible, teachers incorporate a choice of topic or format and, sometimes, goal setting and self-assessment into reading and writing assignments to accommodate varying student interests and learning styles and to engage students in developing their proficiency as readers and writers.

Decades of research show that achievement and motivation are inextricably linked. However, no single motivational pathway or type of engagement guarantees academic achievement. Each student is a unique blend of individual interests, backgrounds, stories, and needs. Each is motivated in different ways at different times. Rewards and punishments can sometimes encourage temporary compliance or fleeting spikes in motivation, but those effects diminish or disappear when the incentives are removed or the teacher is not present6.

Reduce technology where appropriate and when necessary.

Recent brain research reveals that our brains are indeed capable of doing many things simultaneously as long as those things do not require much complexity and the costs for making errors is low. However, when the individual attempts to switch rapidly back and forth between competing activities—multitasking—the brain is limited in its capacity to do those activities well. The parts of the prefrontal cortex responsible for controlling impulses, weighing opinions, constructing arguments, making meaning, and solving problems are incredibly complex, but they are also quite slow in comparison to the more primal parts of the brain responsible for quick reactions, unconscious habits, and the “fight or flight” response. In short, multitasking hinders the deepest forms of engagement our brains need to learn complex things6.

If opportunities to reduce distraction and sustain focus are not provided (or enforced), the phenomenon of “continuous partial attention” associated with chronic multitasking can literally rewire the brain in ways that make higher-order thinking, impulse control, and focus difficult. To access the most sophisticated parts of their brains, students require the elimination of competing disruptions, either through self-generated strategies of regulation or outside restrictions via teacher (and parent) monitoring. For these reasons, the infusion and use of technology in schools needs to be monitored judiciously6.

Motivating students to apply themselves in the classroom requires knowing them, their beliefs, their anxieties, and their backgrounds—and customizing approaches that are responsive to each. It does not require “dumbing things down,” a common feature of lower-tracked classes.

A more research-driven and student-centered approach would be to push all people toward incremental growth in their knowledge and skills, and to ascertain what motivates each individual student to achieve in a particular class. Teachers can then enlist the student’s help in identifying factors that might elevate his or her motivation, including changes to the classroom and curriculum or changes to the individual’s beliefs and behaviors6.

In conclusion, this is fascinating information and I don’t care about the mark. I got carried away anyway so I think it could be late but I had fun and I learned and I can’t say enough about the experience. I was engaged and motivated. Cheers.

References

1. Barkley, Elizabeth F., Student Engagement Techniques – A Handbook for College Faculty Jossey Bass 2010 – John Wiley and Sons P. 69,  70,  71, 72, 73

2. Communication, Affect and Learning in the Classroom – Web Site – https://archive.org/details/CommunicationAffectAndLearningInTheClassroom  

3. Student Motivation, Engagement, and Achievement – Web Site – http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/107034/chapters/Student-Motivation,-Engagement,-and-Achievement.aspx

4. Active Learning – Web Site – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Active_learning

5. Student Engagement – Web Site – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Student_engagement  

6.  Motivation, Engagement and Student Voice – Web Site – http://www.jff.org/sites/default/files/publications/materials/Exec_Toshalis%26Nakkula_032312.pdf

7. Understanding Arabic Culture – Web Site – http://freerepublic.com/focus/news/747968/posts

Chandigarh 2009

PIDP 3260 Professional Practice

The Professional Practice course introduces participants to the issues, themes and concepts of effective instruction, instructor competencies, informal and formal assessment and evaluation of instruction, as well as ethics, professionalism and career management. A central focus of the course is the use of feedback mechanisms to guide instruction and to improve one’s professional practice. Participants are also introduced to the purposes and methods of course evaluation. They will define their vision of effective instruction and design feedback instruments that assess their instructional competencies. Participants will analyze dilemmas and suggest resolutions to the problems that confront many adult educators. Using ethical principles and codes of conduct as reference points, they will strengthen and articulate their understanding of professionalism, which highlights the importance of ethical and professional behavior in their practice. The course also highlights the importance of developing a career management strategy which includes a professional development plan.

Amsterdam 2015 – Getting on our houseboat

Reflective Writing #1 – Simply having experiences….

PDIP 3260 Professional Practice

January 6th 2017

PIDP 3260 Professional Development

“Simply having experiences does not imply that they are reflected on, understood or analyzed critically. Individual experiences can be distorted, self fulfilling, unexamined and constraining.” P. 12

Objective

“Simply having experiences does not imply that they are reflected on, understood or analyzed critically. Individual experiences can be distorted, self-fulfilling, unexamined and constraining.” (Brookfield, 2015 P. 12) 4.

This is an interesting quote as it illustrates the need for self-reflection and the fact that experience does teach us important lessons but it they may not necessarily be enriching.

Brookfield notes that, “Events happen to us but experiences – the meanings to how we understand events – are constructed by us as we make sense of these events” (2015, p. 12). We need to put it into our context and reflect on what we learned. Reflection is critical to learning.

Reflective – so how can I relate?

I learned that the experiences you have while teaching are always very personal ones although there may be some patterns or trends. Brookfield also notes that “pooling of individual experiences can be a myopic exchange of prejudices”. He goes on to say that “even when cross – disciplinary groups work on the same problem there can still be a form of groupthink. This is particularly so if group members are drawn from the same class, cultural group and geographical area” (Brookfield P. 12 – 13). 4.

Interpretive – so what does this mean?

Learning is cyclical and very much a path to success that requires reflection. Learning occurs when the path can be examined by the learner in this moment of reflection. The full extent of learning happens when learners can understand this path and the process of learning.

MacKeracher (2006) 6. also describes learning as cyclical, in which the learner:

  1. Participates in experiences and gathers information;
  2. Makes sense of experiences by giving it meaning and recognizing patterns;
  3. Applies meanings in decision making and choices;
  4. Acts within a situation that involves the environment or people, testing decisions made; and
  5. Gathers responses from environment or people, thus providing information for a new learning cycle.

In the article “The Learning Way—Learning from Experience as the Path to Lifelong by Learning and Development.” By Passarelli and Kolb. 2.  The cyclical path of learning has also been described as concrete experience, reflective observation, abstract conceptualization, active experimentation by Kolb (1984); and as disorientation, exploration, reorientation, then equilibrium by Taylor (1979; 1987) 7.

There can be challenges to learning as noted by Kolb. This can be caused by moving too quickly through the learning cycle, or by skipping parts of the cycle. This would explain why students can become stuck.

A crucial element of the learning cycle is the gathering of feedback of experiences, whether it be from other individuals or the environment itself (MacKeracher, 2006). It is so important to be reflective as an instructor or otherwise we may become stuck as well.

There needs to be time for reflection for both the students and the instructor and that is what Brookfield is pointing out here.

Decisional – what will I do?

In consideration of the importance of the entire cycle of learning, I would like to look at implementing the following:

  1. Discuss that learning is really a learning cycle and that there may be challenges if the learning cycle path is not followed or skipped.
  2. There needs to be time for reflection in class and outside of class.
  3. Some examples of activities that can be used outside of the classroom can include journaling, blogging, podcasts, or discussion forums.
  4. It is important to schedule reflection for the next day before the next topic is introduced. This will also allow time for the student to process their thoughts and gather feedback from others before making a statement. This will work well in my Project Management class where there is considerable information delivered in a short period of time. I wanted to develop a discussion forum in this course.

References:

 1. Four ‘Pillars of Learning’ for the   Reorientation and Reorganization of Curriculum: Reflections and Discussions  by Zhou Nan-Zhao*  – Website  http://www.ibe.unesco.org/cops/Competencies/PillarsLearningZhou.pdf

2. The Learning Way—Learning from Experience as the Path to Lifelong 

Learning and Development by  Angela M. Passarelli & David A. Kolb  Department of Organizational Behavior Weatherhead School of Management Case Western Reserve University Cleveland OH  44106-7235 e-mail:  ler6@case.edu https://weatherhead.case.edu/departments/organizational-behavior/workingPapers/WP-09-03.pdf

3. WordPress Blog – https://healthteachinginspirations.wordpress.com/about/

4. Brookfield, S. (2006). The Skillful Teacher: On Technique, Trust, and Responsiveness in the Classroom (2nd ed). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

5. Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential learning: experience as the source of learning and development. Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice-Hall.

6. MacKeracher, D. (2006). Making Sense of Adult Learning (2nd. ed., Repr). Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press.

7. Taylor, M. (1979). Adult learning in an emergent learning group: Toward a theory of learning from the learners’ perspective. Doctoral dissertation, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto, Toronto.

8. Taylor, M. (1987). Self-directed learning: More than meets the observer’s eye. In D. Boud & V. Griffin (Eds.), Appreciating adults learning: From the learners’ perspective (pp. 179–96). London: Kogan Page.

Meadowlake, Saskatchewan 1999

Reflective Writing #2 – As team teachers we all bring…..

PDIP 3260 Professional Practice

January 6th 2017

PIDP 3260 Professional Development

“As teachers we all bring different gifts, and handicaps, to the table” (Brookfield, 2015, p. 102).

Objective

“As teachers we all bring different gifts, and handicaps, to the table” (Brookfield, 2015, p. 102).

Reflective – Why I chose this quote?

I chose this quote as I am interested in team teaching and how it can help improve students understanding of material that I may be knowledgeable of but not necessarily an expert. This quote originates from Brookfield’s chapter on teaching successfully in diverse classrooms. He suggests that no matter how much effort an instructor makes on meeting the diverse needs of each learner, he or she will never be fully successful.  Brookfield proposes the idea of team teaching – where two or three instructors with “different racial identities, talents, and personalities form a teaching team” (Brookfield, 2015, p. 102).  Having a team of instructors teach a course will generate more opportunities for the varied learning needs of students to be met.  I have a course called Strategic Management where my colleague who is a financial expert came in to class to help my students with their financial ratios and accounting terms. Many of the students were HR students so it was particularly valuable to them and because it was 50% of the assessment helped them to successfully complete the course. It was good because it changed the tempo of the class and improved their attention and focus for a Learning Objective that was critical for their success.

Interpretive – What does it mean to you? How was your thing changed by reflecting on the quote?

I think it is very true that we do bring different gifts and handicaps to the table when it comes to teaching as we all have different personalities and interests, styles of delivery, energy, enthusiasm etc.

I read that one instructor who wrote an article on her experience with team teaching stated, “we magnified each other’s successes and minimized each other’s failures” (Tomlinson, 2015, p.90)

Some interesting articles are available on this subject –

“Team teaching involves a group of instructors working purposefully, regularly, and cooperatively to help a group of students of any age learn. Teachers together set goals for a course, design a syllabus, prepare individual lesson plans, teach students, and evaluate the results. They share insights, argue with one another, and perhaps even challenge students to decide which approach is better.

Teams can be single-discipline, interdisciplinary, or school-within-a-school teams that meet with a common set of students over an extended period of time. New teachers may be paired with veteran teachers. Innovations are encouraged, and modifications in class size, location, and time are permitted. Different personalities, voices, values, and approaches spark interest, keep attention, and prevent boredom.

The team-teaching approach allows for more interaction between teachers and students. Faculty evaluate students on their achievement of the learning goals; students evaluate faculty members on their teaching proficiency. Emphasis is on student and faculty growth, balancing initiative and shared responsibility, specialization and broadening horizons, the clear and interesting presentation of content and student development, democratic participation and common expectations, and cognitive, affective, and behavioral outcomes. This combination of analysis, synthesis, critical thinking, and practical applications can be done on all levels of education, from kindergarten through graduate school.

Working as a team, teachers model respect for differences, interdependence, and conflict-resolution skills. Team members together set the course goals and content, select common materials such as texts and films, and develop tests and final examinations for all students. They set the sequence of topics and supplemental materials. They also give their own interpretations of the materials and use their own teaching styles. The greater the agreement on common objectives and interests, the more likely that teaching will be interdependent and coordinated.” 4.

Team Teaching as noted the researchers at Vanderbilt noted –

Advantages of this model include potential deep student learning because of exposure to the connections across the disciplines of the instructors, the ambiguity of different disciplinary views, and the broad support that a heterogeneous teaching team can provide during the entire course.

Challenges include the misfortunes that could occur if the team is not well organized and connected. One challenge is determining the amount of credit each of the team members receives for teaching the course. Sometimes an instructor receives only a fraction of the credit that he or she would receive for teaching a course solo, while in reality team teaching usually requires each instructor to engage more work than when being the only instructor. 3.

Decisional – How can this new or enhanced interpretation be applied to your professional practice?

I must say that this is an idea to explore in future courses where trusted and enthusiastic colleagues can help with the material delivery. This is most appropriate at the higher level courses.

Other things to note as per the Vanderbilt researchers note – As a part of course design, team teachers should consider the following questions:

  • What responsibilities will be shared by the instructors?
  • What responsibilities will be divided generally (across the semester) or specifically (on particular days)?
  • What are the responsibilities of the instructor “in charge” of a particular event or assignment?
  • How can the other instructor(s) facilitate student learning by assisting the instructor with the primary responsibility for a given event or assignment?
  • How will instructors handle disagreements about content or procedure without undermining one another or compromising student learning?
  • How and when will instructors meet to discuss the course or linked courses and consider changes to content or procedures throughout the semester? 3.

“Team teaching also cultivates collaboration between teachers and students.  In the article Team Teaching: The Learning Side of the Teaching – Learning Equation, Eison and Tidwell (2003) advocate sharing power with students and including them in some of the decision-making about their own learning. We believe this facilitates critical thinking and students’ ability to see themselves as constructors of knowledge”. 3.

Team teaching is certainly up for discussion and review as there are some good merits to it as outline here and it would be appropriate for certain courses and subjects.

References

  1. Brookfield, Stephen D. The Skillful Teacher 3rd Edition Jossey Bass 2915
  2. Tomlinson, C.A. (2015). Teaching in tandem: A reflection. Educational Leadership, December 2015/January 2016, 90-91.
  3. Team or Collaborative Teaching – Website https://cft.vanderbilt.edu/guides-sub-pages/teamcollaborative-teaching/
  4. Team Teaching – Advantages and Disadvantages – Website http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/2493/Team-Teaching.html
Wedding in the hills of Jammu Kashmir 2009
The kids in their best clothes for the wedding
Yakking it up
Jammu Kasmir

Ethical Dilemma

PDIP 3260 Professional Practice

January 6th 2017

As I thought about these issues I looked into some Ethics articles and sites for educators and I came across the following article form the American Association of Educators Web Site.

Code of Ethics for Educators

This Code of Ethics for Educators was developed by the distinguished AAE Advisory Board and by the Executive Committee of AAE.

It contains four basic principles relating to the rights of students and educators.

OVERVIEW

The professional educator strives to create a learning environment that nurtures to fulfillment the potential of all students.

The professional educator acts with conscientious effort to exemplify the highest ethical standards.

PRINCIPLE I: Ethical Conduct toward Students

PRINCIPLE II: Ethical Conduct toward Practices and Performance

PRINCIPLE III: Ethical Conduct toward Professional Colleagues

PRINCIPLE IV: Ethical Conduct toward Parents and Community

Narrative

Introduction

I don’t have anything specific to talk about in terms of ethics as I proactively manage this area of my life but in more general terms we have many challenges professionally to make sure we are working in an ethical fashion and that we are not vulnerable to any questionable situations etc. We have lots to worry about because there are lots of challenges. We need to have an ethical focus towards our students, practices, colleagues and our community.

Students Background

I have been teaching at CNAQ for several years now and have a good relationship with my students. The students are 70% approximately Qatari – male and female almost equal although I have had some courses where they are nearly all female. The balance are male and female students from over 30 countries whose parents work in Qatar. Students range in age from 18 – 30 with some mature students and many of them are married already with children. Among these are some excellent students who are committed to success. This makes for a fascinating work environment. 

Plagiarism

Plagiarism is common in the first few years where there is a need to remember terms but later as critical thinking grows and one moved up Bloom’s Taxonomy there is less plagiarism and more work (or it is harder to find?!)…… We have many tools such as “Turn It In” to help us but it usually comes down to good management – telling them the consequences, monitoring their work, monitoring their computers during exams and telling them the consequences of getting caught. Another popular sermon is the one on “Ghostwriters” who can make over 2500 QR $800 Canadian to write a paper for their wealthy Qatari colleagues.

 “Teacher I need to talk to you”?

Accessibility is important for students and we have a minimum number of hours posted in our schedules and on our door of when we will be available (although in the Middle East that means any time and I do get calls and texts at many random times but that is just the way it is here – I deal with it.) I often have students visit my office to ask for help and encouragement. I try and keep the door open as I don’t want to encourage private conversations that are out of scope of the learning objectives, course outline and deliverables. I have however had those “teacher can I talk to you” moments that are usually reserved for the councilors who do this for a living. It can be very challenging as you have to be on your guard all the time. I have had a few discussions that I consider out of order and a little too personal but sometimes you have to just listen, absorb and recommend they see said councilors before they reveal too much. I have been successful many times in stopping the “confession” that may be of a personal or professional nature but I have had a few “oh no – too much information”. You learn through experience. You have to be careful as it does not take much for things to go sideways and get out of control. You have to stay in control.

The Teacher is the Guru

In the cultural environment that I work in, teachers are seen as highly respected members of society and someone that can be spoken too about the challenges of modern life: girls, boys, husbands, wives, marriage, divorce, children, abortion, sexuality, privacy – despite us collectively not wanting to be involved. Experience has taught me to try and stop the discussion before it goes too far and point them in the direction of the councilors as I mentioned. This can happen on a weekly basis but the “walls” do seem to start coming in around midterm, project and final exam time.

Social Media

We live in the world of social media and I do share my mobile number with them to help me manage my time, classes, and for them to keep me informed on issues related to attendance, performance and overall progress. They all have their phones connected to their email, What’s App, Facebook, Twitter, Snapchat (very popular here as they think it goes away and there is no trail to follow) etc. I have had some strange messages, emoticons, and other things happen but nothing really serious where I would need to escalate. I try and head those things off as quickly as possible. Obviously, there are numerous issues related to privacy, security, confidentiality as a result. Instructors must be transparent. Students will often ask to be friends on Facebook but I do not encourage this as we have differing cultures that do not necessarily agree – such as eating pork or consuming alcohol. Privacy is important and ethically there could be challenges. I have far too pictures for example of pork dishes in Prague and that Beer Spa I went I went to is so wrong in their eyes!.

Group Work

I have found that there can be huge rifts among team members when deadlines approach and they are still “storming” and the group is just not performing. Generally, from my experience, the girls are the worst and I have had to defuse many a scenario to try and get them back on track. One way that I try and manage this is to not let it happen in the first place by checking in with groups early in their formation, moving group members around and ensuring they are working well together and performing. If things are not working well, I move groups and people around and I have learned this from experience. Sometimes everything looks and sounds good and then suddenly falls apart when things are close to being required. My colleague has developed a method where group members can fire each other that I want to look at and also all group members have to evaluate others to keep the workload fair.

Reflection

I think the most important thing about these issues is to be aware that YOU need to be in control, as well as that there is a support network to deal with things as they arise. You must be proactive, as your life and job are at stake almost every day if you don’t keep your guard up. You must be the consumet professional. You need to know there is help available and when to go for help. When I had a “Group Tiff” last semester in my Business Planning Group with four Qatari females I gave my Chair a head’s up but managed to defuse by forcefully discussing what I expected them to agree to and complete. It could have been a lot worse because it got personal and there were tears, threats and a Shakespearean tragedy about to unfold.

Proactive is so important. I think there has been some great work done on these ethically issues by the colleague – plagiarism, councilors availability, work help – writing, math, accounting and respect and tolerance in our multi-cultural environment. This is so critical and everyone needs to be constantly reminded numerous times throughout the year. They are very generous and often want to give their instructors gifts but this is not acceptable. If they want to something then I recommend they bring something for all to share like chocolates or food. We have strict policies on gifts and they are not to be accepted and if they are given, declared to the Chair and Dean.

Instructors should be approachable but they are professionals and should maintain a professional distance.  You must be careful to stay on the right side of the tracks and social media can put you on the wrong side really quickly. Texts and emails are not private.  They can be seen by others, forwarded and/or copied and printed.  Out of context, they may appear to be inappropriate and lead to a violation of the Code of Professional Responsibility for Educators.  Depending on how personal they are, an instructor may also be subject to investigation and possibly lose her certification. I know an instructor that lost their job at CNAQ because of inappropriate comments made on Twitter.

In conclusion, be the professional that you should be, and guard your life and chosen profession.

use common sense

be sure your communication is transparent, and accessible

keep it professional

Appendix –

We have a Code of Conduct at CNAQ and we sign many documents related to use of our computers, phones, email etc. This is our policy 3.

Members of the College Community, including members of the public on campus, are expected to adhere to the following standards of conduct:

 A. Adopt at all times appropriate, reasonable and respectful dress, behavior and language that reflect the professional image of College of the North Atlantic and the laws and customs of the State of Qatar;

 B. Treat colleagues, students, College community and public with dignity, respect and consideration;

 C. Conduct all employment responsibilities in an honest and diligent manner;

D. Never use official roles to inappropriately obtain an advantage for yourself or to advantage or disadvantage others;

E. Endeavor to ensure the proper, effective and efficient use of State of Qatar and College money and resources; 

 F. Do not engage in any activity of any nature which would conflict with your duty to the College or which could reasonably be expected to be detrimental to the interest or reputation of the College; 

 G. Accept that there are differences in people, their ideas and their opinions and how they may be expressed; 

 H. Show responsible care and regard for College property and the property of others; 

 I. Respect the need of others to work or study in an environment that is conducive to productive job performance or learning; 

 J. Speak and act with respect and dignity, and deal judiciously with others, always mindful of their rights and refrain from any use of physical or verbal abuse, loud or vulgar language and/or gestures at all times; 

 K. Fulfill your duties with the highest standards (which includes being punctual and prepared);

 L. Come to work dressed in appropriate and professional attire as expected in a given context/work environment;

 M. Take appropriate safety measures;

 N. Not be under the influence of alcohol or illegal or unauthorized drugs during the course of professional activities;

O. Respect confidential and protected information at all times;

P. Use good judgment when sharing information and opinions (including via the Internet and social media) so as not to affect the reputation of colleagues or students, the College, Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, or the State of Qatar;

Q. Use the grievance systems in place to settle disputes;

R. Do not post or engage in on-line activities that are illegal, that disrespect or insult colleagues, students, or the College, or that promote false or discriminatory information; 

S. Respect and treat others fairly, regardless of, race, ancestry, place of origin, color, ethnic origin, citizenship, religion, gender, sexual orientation, age, or disability;

 T. Follow the appropriate line of authority and not bypass immediate authority to reach higher authority without first exhausting the appropriate channels of communication; and

 U. Protect College property and assets from harm, theft, loss or misuse. 3.

===============================================================

I found this one I liked from the American Association of Educators as well.

PRINCIPLE I: Ethical Conduct toward Students 1.

The professional educator accepts personal responsibility for teaching students character qualities that will help them evaluate the consequences of and accept the responsibility for their actions and choices. We strongly affirm parents as the primary moral educators of their children. Nevertheless, we believe all educators are obligated to help foster civic virtues such as integrity, diligence, responsibility, cooperation, loyalty, fidelity, and respect-for the law, for human life, for others, and for self.

The professional educator, in accepting his or her position of public trust, measures success not only by the progress of each student toward realization of his or her personal potential, but also as a citizen of the greater community of the republic.

1. The professional educator deals considerately and justly with each student, and seeks to resolve problems, including discipline, according to law and school policy.

2. The professional educator does not intentionally expose the student to disparagement.

3. The professional educator does not reveal confidential information concerning students, unless required by law.

4. The professional educator makes a constructive effort to protect the student from conditions detrimental to learning, health, or safety.

5. The professional educator endeavors to present facts without distortion, bias, or personal prejudice.

PRINCIPLE II: Ethical Conduct toward Practices and Performance

The professional educator assumes responsibility and accountability for his or her performance and continually strives to demonstrate competence.

The professional educator endeavors to maintain the dignity of the profession by respecting and obeying the law, and by demonstrating personal integrity.

1. The professional educator applies for, accepts, or assigns a position or a responsibility on the basis of professional qualifications, and adheres to the terms of a contract or appointment.

2. The professional educator maintains sound mental health, physical stamina, and social prudence necessary to perform the duties of any professional assignment.

3. The professional educator continues professional growth.

4. The professional educator complies with written local school policies and applicable laws and regulations that are not in conflict with this code of ethics.

5. The professional educator does not intentionally misrepresent official policies of the school or educational organizations, and clearly distinguishes those views from his or her own personal opinions.

6. The professional educator honestly accounts for all funds committed to his or her charge.

7. The professional educator does not use institutional or professional privileges for personal or partisan advantage.

PRINCIPLE III: Ethical Conduct toward Professional Colleagues

The professional educator, in exemplifying ethical relations with colleagues, accords just and equitable treatment to all members of the profession.

1. The professional educator does not reveal confidential information concerning colleagues unless required by law.

2. The professional educator does not willfully make false statements about a colleague or the school system.

3. The professional educator does not interfere with a colleague’s freedom of choice, and works to eliminate coercion that forces educators to support actions and ideologies that violate individual professional integrity.

PRINCIPLE IV: Ethical Conduct toward Parents and Community

The professional educator pledges to protect public sovereignty over public education and private control of private education.

The professional educator recognizes that quality education is the common goal of the public, boards of education, and educators, and that a cooperative effort is essential among these groups to attain that goal.

1. The professional educator makes concerted efforts to communicate to parents all information that should be revealed in the interest of the student.

2. The professional educator endeavors to understand and respect the values and traditions of the diverse cultures represented in the community and in his or her classroom.

3. The professional educator manifests a positive and active role in school/community relations.

 References

  1. Code of Ethic for Educators  – Website http://aaeteachers.org/index.php/about-us/aae-code-of-ethics
  2. Connecticut Teachers Association Ethical and Professional Dilemmas for Educators Website  http://www.ctteam.org/df/resources/Module5_Manual.pdf
  3. CNAQ Professional Code of Conduct – January 2016

Career Management Strategy

PDIP 3260 Professional Practice

The Beetles

January 6th 2017

PIDP 3260 Professional Development

Vision

I wish to learn, grow and contribute to my classroom, community and personal relationships. To achieve this vision I need to be focused, disciplined, organized and demonstrate persistence.

Teaching Vision

Teaching is my number one focus. I hope to continue to teach until I decide to retire in a place that I chose from an affordability, live ability and interest point of view. I am continuing to educate myself to ensure that I can extend my career as I do not have a large pension or RRSP in place to retire early.

Industry Vision

I may move back into industry if the right opportunity presents itself. I would like to develop a business that I can operate. I have worked in numerous industries such as software development and food and telecommunications. I have many skills from sales to marketing to technical skills like software, hardware and telecommunications.

Personal Vision

I want to continue to remain fit, funky and engaged in my community. I want to continue to pursue my hobbies of golf, running, biking, photography and writing. I am a lifelong learner and have taken many courses and diplomas besides my degrees. I want to continue to improve my photography skills and start writing more (I did take a course last semester called Intro to Short Story Writing at Georgetown University here in Doha).

Personal and Professional Values

I am a skilled and seasoned business practitioner with a proven background in education, leadership, marketing, performance management, planning, project management, leadership and market development.

On my resume I describe myself as “a highly accomplished and dynamic professional with an MBA in Marketing and IT and over 25 years extensive international experience in education, marketing, branding, leadership, business development, business start-ups and strategic marketing and sales.”

 My Values

This is a good list that I found in my research – I underlined my key values in this list:

ambition, competency, individuality, equality, integrity, service, responsibility, accuracy, respect, dedication, diversity, improvement, enjoyment/fun, loyalty, credibility, honesty, innovativeness, teamwork, excellence, accountability, empowerment, quality, efficiency, dignity, collaboration, stewardship, empathy, accomplishment, courage, wisdom, independence, security, challenge, influence, learning, compassion, friendliness, discipline/order, generosity, persistence, optimism, dependability, flexibility, change 2.

My Career

CAREER HISTORY

August 2014 – Present

Instructor – School of Business – College of the North Atlantic – Qatar.

As an Instructor in the Marketing division of the School of Business, I develop and teach a business curriculum to Qatari and expatriate students. I have taught numerous marketing, entrepreneurship and Project Management courses, since I arrived in Doha.

Jan 2011 – June 2014

Business Faculty – Higher Colleges of Technology in Abu Dhabi, UAE. 

As a Business Faculty member, I develop and teach a business curriculum to Emirati business and engineering students. I have taught UAE Law, Organizational Behavior, Human Resources, Performance Management, Marketing, Business Strategy and Project Management, among other subjects.

Previous Twelve Years Employment:

Director of Sales | AwareBase Corporation, Edmonton 2010 
  • Software company – aircraft maintenance software and cloud computing solutions. Headed the Sales Department and developed extensive sales channels and significantly increased sales volume. Data Management and consulting experience and expertise as well.
Director of Sales – Strategic Partnerships| Associations and Corporations: Thompson Rivers University, Kamloops 2009 – 2010 
  • Large University – campus and online. Managed over 100 emerging partnerships, representing over two million potential students in a contract covering Canada and the US.
VP Sales and VP Corporate Sales | Safefreight Technology, Edmonton  2006 – 2009 
  • GPS tracking company. Managed major accounts, such as oil and gas and other verticals. Led triple-digit corporate growth; closed over $6 million dollars in contracts, including CNRL and Shell and other Fortune 500 customers.  Built sales processes, trained and recruited teams.
Sales Development Manager | Superior Propane, Edmonton 2003 – 2006 
  • Oil and Gas supplier and services partner. Led and developed the strategic marketing plan to guide and achieve annual sales of over $57 million. Developed the most successful fuel and industrial products team in Canada. 8 direct reports.
Vice President of Sales | ROAM I.T., Edmonton  2000 – 2002 
  • Software company. Electronic healthcare form solutions. Senior business development, marketing and sales management. Responsible for developing the operational strategy for the sales, tele-sales, channel management, and marketing research teams in this University of Alberta technology incubator company.

EARLY CAREER

Marketing Manager, New Technology | TELUS – TELUS Advertising Services, Web Solutions – E-Commerce Edmonton 1997 – 2000. TELUS is Canada’s largest Telecom provider. Smart cards. Internet. Marketing budget of over 1 million. 
Divisional Sales and Marketing Manager | Dairyworld Foods (Vancouver and Edmonton)1991 – 1997Largest food company in Canada. Now www.saputo.com FMCG. Managed a 150 million dollar budget. Sales and Marketing responsibilities. Several people reported to me. 
Operations and General Manager – Retail/Home Service Operations and Independent Franchise Management | Dairyworld Foods (Vancouver and Edmonton) Managed a 12 million dollar division and increased sales by 2 million in a year. 50 Direct reports. 
Group Product Manager – Marketing, Brand and Product Management | Dairyworld Foods (Vancouver and Edmonton) Managing a 2.5 million dollar marketing budget and over 550 million in revenue. Worked with Scali McCabe Sloves and J Walter Thompson and other advertising agencies. Won numerous advertising awards. Account Manager Distribution Planning Coordinator Canada – Marketing, Sales, Brand and Product Management |Gainers Foods (Meat) (Edmonton, Alberta) 1987 – 1990 

Teaching

I love teaching. I have been teaching since 2003 but only fulltime since 2011 when I came to the United Arab Emirates and started at The Higher Colleges of Technology. http://www.hct.ac.ae/en/ I have been in Qatar since 2014 at the College of the North Atlantic Qatar. https://www.cna-qatar.com/  I have taught at many Universities and Colleges in 4 different countries. I have taught online and face to face.

TEACHING EXPERIENCE – Over the past Fourteen YEARS

Instructor, College of the North Atlantic – Qatar – School of Business – Marketing Instructor – Project Management, Marketing, Sales, Entrepreneurship, Small Business Development etc. 2014 – Sessional Instructor, Abu Dhabi University – Continuing Ed, English Instructor – Intermediate Level 2012 – 2013, 2016 Faculty, Higher Colleges of Technology, Business Faculty, Abu Dhabi, UAE – Business – numerous courses 2011 – 2014 HR, Law, Insurance, OB, Performance Management, Marketing, Strategy etc.    
Lecturer – Thompson Rivers University, Kamloops, Marketing / Strategy Instructor – Chandigarh, India 2009  
Lecturer –  Business Program – Public Relations, NAIT Edmonton, Alberta 2006 – 2008    
Lecturer – Asia Pacific Supply Chain Program – Competitive Intelligence – MacEwan Edmonton. Alberta 2008 – 2010 Lecturer – Electronic Commerce for Athabasca University – online 2005- 2008  
Lecturer – Electronic Commerce and Business Strategy at Red Deer College for Athabasca University 2006-2008 Instructor – Sales Citation Program – University of Alberta 2003 – 2009  

Teaching Goals

It is very important for me to get better at my craft (“treat it like it is your own business” as my friend Gerard says) and taking this program has helped me improve my skills, my approach, my philosophy, my organization and enriched my life is so many ways. I wanted to become a better teacher and I have seen progress and felt progress through feedback etc.

As far a teaching I am very imaginative, enthusiastic, transparent, adaptable, energetic, engaging, committed, organized, focused, interested and thought provoking teacher (in my mind). In Instructional Skills Workshop I was described as “refreshing” which I thought was good. My students see me as fair, focused and friendly with the last point being strangely important in the Middle East. I think the term “friendly” means that you respect them, try and understand them and help them with their challenges like being absent because they have to travel with relatives for medical reasons etc. Issues that do not happen in Canada.

I came across an article that I liked very much about Three Strategies for Creating Meaningful Learning Experiences by Stephen A. Meyers.7 There were three strategies that he saw as being very effective:

Strategy 1: Assess early, assess often.

An interesting quote here is the following:

“This process raises a series of related questions for college faculty: How well do we know what our students already know, what their interests are, what they want to learn, and what lessons they walk away with from our teaching?

The best way to learn the answers to these questions is to ask them often. Instructors who use the “K-W-L technique” ask their students to list what they know, what they want to know, and what they learned each class (Ogle, 1986). These data are exceptionally helpful in adjusting the content of lessons to ensure that you meet the needs of the greatest number of students.” 7

A common thread is the idea of asking questions and finding out their interests and needs and thereby engaging them in the content and more assessments rather than less. Although the assessments are dictated by procedures and guidelines there are still opportunities to work with in the assessments to monitor progress. Indeed, it also helps to stop plagiarism as you see the process they are working through and know that it is their work. I have a course at the moment called Business Planning and the final deliverable is worth 70%. My colleagues and I are breaking that down into smaller pieces to monitor progress, enable feedback and stop plagiarism.

Strategy 2: Let students get their feet wet.

The idea of keeping it real is something I believe in. Real companies, real ideas and field trips and guest speakers wherever possible. Solving problems together is another way to engage the students and we are working to increase the number of students that are taught using cases especially as we move towards a degree program at CNAQ.

Strategy 3: Welcome student input for your content and assignments.

Getting students involved in their assignment and content is very effective. It gives them ownership and makes them feel in control which is what everyone wants. I like to get students involved with decisions I can make easily such as timing of assessments, delivery of assignments or class timings as far as content is concerned. (“Shall we discuss the case first and then the theory behind it etc. – Depending on the scenario this can be useful.)

Next Steps

Managing my career. I have taken some risks with my career and some things that were supposed to happen did not happen. I came across this quote in my research and it resonated with me.

1. People that don’t proactively manage their careers until they are looking for a job;

2. Managers who hold it against employees that are proactively managing their careers. 8.

These are also some good life tips from Live Career Website10.

1. Ask Plenty of Questions

Asking questions helps you expand your knowledge base, which will open you up to new and exciting opportunities. Asking questions also shows an inherent interest in your industry, proving that you’re a diligent, thoughtful worker.

2. Take Off the Blinders

Successful people never have the attitude that certain tasks are outside of their job responsibilities. If you want to be a manager, then you need to know how every person in your department does their job. That means that you have to take off the blinders and be open to experiencing new things whenever you get the chance.

3. Go Back To School

Even the most successful CEOs and entrepreneurs make time to go to educational seminars and take classes at local colleges. In fact, many successful business professionals have multiple college degrees that apply directly to their line of work. While you don’t have to pursue a Ph.D, you should at least explore educational opportunities that could potentially advance your career.

Simply investing in your education will help you make the most out of your career.

4. Regularly Take On New Challenges

When you take on new challenges, you expand your resume and you often surprise yourself at how much you already know.

5. Become a Resource for Others

Part of feeling fulfilled in your career is being able to share what you know with others. If there are new people working for your company that seem to be struggling, then pull them aside, offer a hand, and help them reach success. Your personal career success is only complete when you’re able to share that knowledge with others and help to influence a new generation of people in your field.

6. Have Goals that You Constantly Strive For

There’s always a new height you can achieve and new goals you can reach in your career. The key is to identify those goals, and then put together a plan to achieve them. Instead of coasting along in your job, you should always have short- and long-term goals to push your career forward.

7. Always Be Prepared for the Next Step

One day, you might look around your office and realize that you’ve completely maximized your potential with your current employer. Does that mean that you’ve maximized your career? No, it means that it’s time for you to move on to that next step in your adventure.

Fulfill Your Life by Making the Most of Your Career

You’ve worked hard to get this far—now it’s time for you to kick things into high gear and make the most of your professional life. 10.

Conclusion

Taking this course has made me do something like this – “writing things down”, that I should have done previously. It has forced me sit down and think about my goals that are ambitious but achievable if I step towards them starting today. Hard to question them if they are written down and there is the incentive to walk the talk as well.

I have tried to be “Smart” with my goals and list the obstacles as best I could although time and focus are first to mind. I did not discuss specifically the support required but my wife is probably the most important support I need in my life.

I have learned numerous things that I want to put into practice such improving my questioning in class and also providing better feedback such as the article by Susan Brookhart. 9.

I still have lots to learn about teaching and I am very glad of what I did learn in this course. I still have a few more bridges to cross but it has been enriching and rewarding and I have learned many useful things from the instructors, the course content and my colleagues.

Being focused and writing things down is critical to success as is making goals that are specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and timely.

  • Companies whose employees understand the mission and goals enjoy a 29 percent greater return than other firms (Watson Wyatt Work Study).
  • U.S. workers want their work to make a difference, but 75 percent do not think their company’s mission statement has become the way they do business (Workplace 2000 Employee Insight Survey). 11.

SMART

Specific Measurable Achievable Realistic Timely – Timing

GoalAs Demonstrated ByTiming
Complete my PIDP Certificate in Adult EducationPIDP See schedule below PIDP 3230: Evaluation of Learning (January 2017) PIDP 3250: Instructional Strategies (January 2017) PIDP 3260: Professional Practice (In Process) PIDP 3270 Capstone Project (June 2017)   Obstacles and Challenges Time, focus Support Encouragement from colleaguesJune 2017 Completion
Phd.Application Completed University of Nicosia http://www.unic.ac.cy/ In Process – should hear by February “Attitudes and Perception to Online and Blended Learning for Business at a College in Qatar” Obstacles and Challenges Time, focus Support My wife, my colleagues in the programStart June 2017
PMPThere are a few choices of PMP education providers Online https://www.simplilearn.com/project-management/pmp-certification-training-doha/pct3279co10 Face to face http://www.watershedpm.com/wpm/pmp-training-and-coaching-using-pmi-pmbok/   Obstacles and Challenges Time and focus Support My wifeMarch 2017   PMP Exam June 2017
Running, Swimming, BikingRunning 10 km Biking 50 km Swimming 1 km Weekly   Obstacles and Challenges Time and Persistence Support My wife and friendsBy February 2017
Short StoryStart my short story by March 2017   Obstacles and Challenges Time and focus Support My wifeBy June 2017
TravelBali – a reward for achieving goals   Obstacles and Challenges Time Support My wifeApril 2017 Booked January 2017
OrganizingPhotography and Writing Materials Pictures, magazines and articles   Obstacles and Challenges Time Support My wifeFebruary 2017 Started January 2017
Trip Advisor – this is my little hobby that incorporates my love of travel, research and helping people – Peteski2016200,000 readers 300 reviews 60 Badges 100 Helpfuls 100,000 points Top 10 Contributor in Doha   Currently 105,000 Readers 286 Reviews 52 Badges 57 Helpfuls 62,000 points Top 20 Contributor in Doha   Obstacles and Challenges Time (this is fun and easy and I am obsessed so stopping is probably as important) Support My wifeApril 2017
FinancingSwitch Banks Commercial Bank of Qatar to HSBC QatarComplete “Financial Goal” Support – My WifeFebruary 2017

I am heavily involved in my community already. Canadians in Qatar, CNAQ Social Committee, INJAZ, Course Leader at CNAQ EP2200 Business Planning

PIDP

PIDP 3100: Foundations of Adult Education

PIDP 3210: Curriculum Design – Development

PIDP 3220 Delivery of Instruction – ISW Completed April 2016

PIDP 3230: Evaluation of Learning (January 2017)

PIDP 3250: Instructional Strategies (January 2017)

PIDP 3260: Professional Practice (In Process)

PIDP 3270 Capstone Project (June 2017)

Appendix

ANALYSIS OF PERSONAL STYLES

The list below contains words that describe various personality styles.  As you read through the list, highlight those items that reflect aspects of your personality/behavioral style.  It is important to be honest and realistic in your choices.  This is an inventory of who you actually are, not who you would like to think you are or how you would like others to perceive you.  (As a useful point of comparison, you might consider asking a recent co-worker to complete a duplicate form and identify your top five styles from their perspective.) This level of honesty also provides you with insights into areas of needed change that you can incorporate into your planning, thus, enabling you to more effectively achieve your developmental goals.  After highlighting your selections, go back to help complete Appendix B and select words that are most accurate of your personality style, buzz words about you and what you want to be known for.

 Accommodating Cautious Determined Instinctive Patient Self-Confident Accurate Charismatic Dignified Introvert Perceptive Selfless Action-oriented Cheerful Diligent Intuitive Perfectionist Self-motivated Active  Clever Diplomatic Inventive Persevering Self-reliant Adaptable Collaborative Discreet Investigative Persistent Sensitive Adventurous Competent Dominant Kind Persuasive Serious Aggressive Competitive Dynamic Knowledgeable Pioneering Sincere Alert Compliant Easy-going Leader Poised Social Altruistic Confident Effective Logical Polite Solitary Ambitious Conscientious Energetic Loyal Practical Stable Analytical Conventional Enthusiastic Mature Pragmatic Steady Appreciative Cooperative Ethical Methodical Precise Strong Artistic Critical Exceptional Moral Principled Supportive Assertive Curious Expert Motivated Professional Tactful Astute Decisive Extrovert Motivating Rational Thorough Authoritative Dedicated Imaginative Objective Realistic Thoughtful Bold Disciplined Independent Observant Reserved Tolerant Calm Deliberate Influential Open-minded Resilient Trustworthy Candid Dependable Innovative Optimistic Resourceful Versatile Caring Dependent Inquisitive Outgoing Retiring  4.

References

  1. Brookfield, S. D. (2015). The Skillful Teacher: On Technique, Trust and Responsiveness in the Classroom. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    1. Identify and Live your Personal Values for Success – Website https://www.thebalance.com/identify-and-live-your-personal-values-for-success-1919216
    1. Core Values Are What You Believe – Website  https://www.thebalance.com/identify-and-live-your-personal-values-for-success-1919216  
    1. DEVELOPING A PERSONAL CAREER STRATEGY (PCS)   – Web Site http://mbastudents.smeal.psu.edu/career-services/documents/personal_career_strategy
    1. Website www.livecareer.com
    1. Mercedes Schmidt PIDP Student https://healthteachinginspirations.wordpress.com/
    1. http://www.facultyfocus.com/articles/effective-teaching-strategies/three-strategies-creating-meaningful-learning-experiences/
    1. Career Management Strategies – Website http://hrpeople.monster.com/careers/articles/2518-10-career-management-strategies?print=true
    1. How to Give Effective Feedback to Your Students by Susan M. Brookhart – Website http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/108019/chapters/Types-of-Feedback-and-Their-Purposes.aspx
    1. Live Career – Career Tips  Website https://www.livecareer.com/career-tips
    1. Susan Heathcraft – Website https://www.thebalance.com/build-a-strategic-framework-through-strategic-planning-1916834

Bloom’s Taxonomy Website Humber College http://humber.ca/centreforteachingandlearning/instructional-strategies/teaching-methods/course-development-tools/blooms-taxonomy.html

Canadian Business Council Abu Dhabi, UAE 2014

Feedback Form

PDIP 3260 Professional Practice

January 6th 2017

 “Always the beautiful answer / who asks a more beautiful question.” 1

—e.e. cummings

What is that big, beautiful idea we are trying to communicate ? Jodie Foster 2

Ireland 2008 – Surfing

Part A

Course: ________________

Instructor Name: ____________________________

logo1 = Never; 7 = Frequently

1Indicates where the class is going1234567
2Explains material clearly1234567
3Indicates important points to remember1234567
4Shows genuine interest in students1234567
5Effectively directs and stimulates discussion1234567
6Provides helpful comments on papers and exams1234567
7Is tolerant of different opinions expressed in class1234567
8Is available outside of class1234567
9Explains thinking behind statements1234567
10Effectively encourages students to ask questions and give answers1234567
11Adjusts pace of class to the students’ level of understanding1234567
12Seems well-prepared1234567
13Stimulates interest in material1234567
14Treats students with respect1234567
15Is effective, overall, in helping me learn1234567
 Totals       

16. What does the instructor do that helps you to learn?

17. What do you think is this instructor’s greatest strength?




18. What suggestions would you give to improve this instructor’s teaching to help you learn?



19. Approximately how many class meetings have you attended so far?

Percentage

0          30       40       50       60       70       80       90       100%

20. Areas for Improvement

Rationale

  1. Overall purpose of the instrument

This form is based on the belief that feedback is a gift and must be encouraged as it leads to more successful teaching, resulting better results for the students as well. I like to ask lots of questions in class and obviously would do the same with an evaluation form. Yes, this form is very detailed but I feel very appropriate in terms of gathering the right information at the end of the course which can lead to future improvements.

I am very interested in creating a questioning classroom especially in my 2nd and 3rd year courses when the basic material has been covered and there is a higher level of Bloom’s Taxonomy in the classroom with critical thinking and discussion. Courses such as Project Management, Strategic Management and capstone courses like Business Planning would all benefit from this level of detail. There is lots of interesting material on this that is out of scope of this feedback instrument discussion but it all leads to the type of classroom environment that I seek to build. Books, articles and websites on the importance of questioning are very common as it teaches students critical thinking 3,4,5. Questions are important as they check to see if the students follow, help clarify idea and again help them to develop critical thinking. 3 The evaluation form is no different. It asks them to critically think about the course and how it could be improved.

Therefore, this would be used as a Summative form at the end of the course for further improvements to the course and for the instructor. There would need to be a course completed when this is given to the students. It could be interesting to develop a formative form that could be used early in the course to ask “what are your expectations from the course and instructor”.

There are two parts to the Instructor Feedback Form

  1. Likert Scale
  2. Open Ended Questions

Benefits

  1. Asks the student to critically think about the course and provide detailed feedback to the instructor and others who may benefit from this information (curriculum development, other instructors, peers, administration) and adds to the educator’s portfolio of feedback tools.

This Instructor feedback form increases communication between the students and the instructor.

This instructor feedback form improves awareness of student concerns.

Instructor gets good information that can be acted upon,

Students get input on the course and how to make changes and improvements.

Very detailed rubric which I like. Likert Scale and also Open ended direct questions. The Likert scale is detailed with actionable items – for example Question 1 – Explains where the class is going and Question 11 – Adjust pace of class to student’s level of understanding are both very actionable items

  • Layout, formatting and directions

Font – Calibri 14 – clean and the right size

(Calibri is a very popular and easy to read font with positive feedback, award winning status and very common – here is some information on Calibri – )

Calibri (/kəˈliːbri/) is a humanist sans-serif typeface family designed by Lucas de Groot. In Microsoft Office 2007, it replaced Times New Roman as the default typeface in Word[1] and replaced Arial as the default in PowerPoint, Excel, Outlook, and WordPad. It continues to be the default in Microsoft Office 2010, 2013 and 2016, and it is now the default font in Office for Mac 2016. A subtly rounded design, de Groot described it as having “a warm and soft character”.

Calibri is part of the ClearType Font Collection, a suite of fonts from various designers released with Windows Vista. All start with the letter C to reflect that they were designed to work well with Microsoft’s ClearType text rendering system, a text rendering engine designed to make text clearer to read on LCD monitors. The other fonts in the same group are Cambria, Candara, Consolas, Constantia and Corbel.[2]  6

Margins – yes – appropriate

White Space – yes – adequate amount

Room to write – yes

Clarity of directions – simple Likert Scale Never = 1 and Frequent = 7 – Rationale is that the wider the numbers the more accurate – gives some confidence relating to accuracy. A smaller scale does not give you the “spread” needed to make good decisions.

  • Analysis of individual items (5 Items)
    • Purpose of the item
    • Type of response required
Preparation – “1. Indicates where the class is going “. Comfort with the plan for delivery between the student and instructor is critical and control from the start of the lesson b) A very positive response is desired – Hoping for an average of 6 here.
Clarity – “2. Explains material clearly” – very important that the student feels the instructor is clear about what will be discussed   b) A very positive response is desired – Hoping for an average of 6 here.
Feedback – “6. Provides helpful comments on papers and exams”. Want to ensure there is a good feeling about feedback between the instructor and student on papers on exams and certainly in the classroom. b) A very positive response is desired – Hoping for great than 5 here.
Questioning Environment – “7. Is tolerant of different opinions expressed in class”. Again it a goal to create a question environment of trust and tolerance where students feel safe to differ in opinion and learn from each other. b) A very positive response is desired – Hoping for an average of 6 here.
Preparation – “12. Seems well prepared”. It is so important to look prepared for the students – perception is reality. It gives them confidence that the instructor is in control. Preparation allows for the class to evolve and may for the discussion to wander off topic a little in a positive way and enable the instructor to bring it back again, as they are in control. b. A very positive response is desired – Hoping for an average of 6 here.
Overall – Bottom Line – “15. Is effective overall, in helping me learn”. I am learning here? Am I getting my money’s worth and best? It is so important that students feel that they are moving forward are encouraged, respected and learning. b) A very positive response is desired – Hoping for an average of over 6.5 here.
  • Plan for analysis and implementation of results
    • Will the form be piloted before being used? Yes – absolutely with some students who have recently taken a course previously from the instructor.
    • What will you do with the information received? The information will be used to improve the course in the next reiteration, will be shared with colleagues and will be added to the instructor’s portfolio.

In conclusion, this is a detailed form but well thought out form that will work for the instructor and the materials that he teaches.

Appendix –

Current Instructor Forms and Discussion

This is a link to the current form – from Fall 2015 – closed Likert Scale 1-4 and some open ended questions Instructor Reports Fall 2015 – Peter Robertson.pdf

References

  1. Warren Berger “A More Beautiful Question” Web Site http://amorebeautifulquestion.com/can-teach-kids-question/
  2. Jodie Foster Quote http://amorebeautifulquestion.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/Q-JodieFoster-Beautiful-Idea-Q.png
  3. Website Class room tips to use questions effectively.  https://www.epopular.com.sg/edureference/classroom-tips-using-questions-effectively.php
  4. The Right Question Institute Web Site http://rightquestion.org/
  5. Rothstein and Santana Book – Make Just One Change: Teach Students to Ask Their Own Questions https://www.amazon.com/Make-Just-One-Change-Questions/dp/1612500994
  6. Wikipedia Website – Calibri research https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calibri
  7. Website – Types of Feedback http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/108019/chapters/Types-of-Feedback-and-Their-Purposes.aspx  
  8. Brookfield, S. D. (2015). The Skillful Teacher: On Technique, Trust and Responsiveness in the Classroom. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

===============================================================

Bengal Tiger Chandigarh Zoo February 2009

PIDP 3270 Capstone Project

During the Capstone Project, participants will outline and describe what relevant life and work experiences they brought into the program. They will then reflect upon the themes and concepts, key insights and points of learning from each PIDP course and how they understand  the integration of these insights in terms of their own work. The participants will develop and deepen the reflection of their personal experiences in the program and the implications for their practice. Last, the participants will design, deliver, digitally record and self-assess a 45-90 minute lesson which will be delivered in a real setting.

This is a self-paced course in which participants work on their own, in consultation with their PIDP Advisor, to complete the course requirements.

Prerequisite: Successful completion of all seven PIDP courses (PIDP 3100, 3210, 3220, 3230, 3240, 3250 or 3280, 3260 or 3290).

PIDP 3270 Capstone Project – Assignment 1 August 2020

Lesson Plan – BOPPPS

PDIP 3270 Capstone

A Review of the PIDP – Provincial Adult Education Diploma

Assignment 3 – Reflection on the Lesson Assignment (Report) 20%

August 6th 2020

“When you want to teach children to think, you begin by treating them seriously when they are little, giving them responsibilities, talking to them candidly, providing privacy and solitude for them, and making them readers and thinkers of significant thoughts from the beginning. That’s if you want to teach them to think.”
Bertrand Russell1

1400 Words without the Appendix information on Constructivism

PIDP 3270 Capstone

Context

1. Context (when, where, part of a course or stand-alone? etc.)

This course is part of our marketing diploma and soon to be degree and is usually taken in year three – the final year. The students must have done Marketing 2 before as seen below.

PREREQUISITES: MR2100 – Marketing 2 

CO-REQUISITES: None

CREDIT VALUE: Four (4)

COURSE HOURS PER WEEK: Four (4)

This course is designed to enable students to apply the concepts of marketing in an international context. The student will research and understand foreign markets and apply marketing concepts relevant to strategy development in foreign markets identified by exporting and transnational organizations. The student will have the opportunity to acquire knowledge of international environmental influences, preparation for international markets, and the international marketing mix and apply various international marketing techniques and practices using case studies and application assignments.

This video lecture is from Week 34. Generally, in the first week the attendance is poor, and you usually must repeat anything you discussed in week 1 again. Many students do not show up until week 2 so by week three the class is generally focused and ready to get into the material. I chose to present a lecture from week 3.

Rationale

2. Rationale (reasons for why you planned and delivered it as you did)

I followed my lesson plan that I use and I modify as a rolling lesson plan as sometimes I don’t get through everything I want to in the particular class and sometimes I have too much, which I would rather have than too little. I like using links as it makes it easier to present.

I always use a lesson plan as it gives the class structure and helps the students and myself arrange our thoughts and develop some comfort with the process decreasing the fear of the unknow. Students tell me on the student surveys that they really like this about my classes – they know what to expect.

The presentation of the Lesson Plan which I always write on the board so they can see it clearly and not just my projection of it, enables them to focus on the material and see the road ahead. This focusing activity when you used in the first five minutes of class sets the expectation that students come to class and start working immediately. Also, when your routine is established in class, the students are more likely to do the pre-class work because now they see how their work is used during class and know they need to be prepared.

In terms of organizing my lesson plans I use the BOPPPS model because it works so well. I know I have to lecture as we have lots of material to get through but also I like to add some media and time for them to work together to mix it up and get them to learn from each other and not just me.

I also like to briefly review the previous lesson so they can clearly see how it is linked to the next lesson and lecture. It gives them a chance to think about it (reflect) and ask questions. Usually by week 4 they are more comfortable with asking questions. Questions are not often asked in this culture, so it takes some work to get them comfortable doing that.

Critique

3. Critique (up to five things that worked well, two or three things that did not go as planned? What would you do the same? What would you do differently? Any other insights gained by viewing yourself?)

What went well

Reflection

I like the opportunity for reflection at the end of the class and make sure I do it every class as I get lots of good feedback and can see where they are stuck and try and let them ask questions several times through my lesson and they like that even if they don’t use that opportunity, they like that it is there.

Taking time for reflection for myself and my students was one of the key things I gained from the course.

Merriam and Bierema (2014) 2 in their book Adult Learning- Linking theory and Practice, state that the key perspective on learning and reflection is that- ‘learning from one’s experience involves not just reflection, but critical reflection’.

This is another great quote as self-awareness and critical reflection are so important. I always saw feedback is a gift and ask for it all the time in my class as it helps me with my reflection on what worked and what did not in my lessons. What works and what does not work is an ongoing practice and a good educator can do this on the fly when they have the experience. You are constantly monitoring the “track”, the “car” and the “situation” just like a Formula 1 driver one of my favourite sports.  After reflecting on my material, I may decide to change and rework my lesson, my activity or my plans and/or my life!. 

I discussed this before, but it is so true. Learning happens when we learn to think. The best way to engage learners is to help them create connections of content in the context of things they have knowledge or experience about. These connections happen through reflection. We are very often averse to new ideas, especially those that can change or challenge our pre-formed beliefs and assumptions. Therefore, reflection may help us make connections between new ideas and assumptions, but it may be still biased. We may be viewing and accepting new ideas with old glasses and not truly looking at them in the proper light.

Lecture

I like how the lesson went and the feedback I got on the class when I did it really in January. We usually have some laughs when the class is there, but I had to do this without a live audience because students are not allowed on campus until September 1st, 2020 at the current time.

Use of the room was good

I fast forwarded the video4 and I do move around the front of the room creating energy. That makes them watch me and I often wander much deeper into the room but did not because of the video.

Energy

I think I brought some good energy to the room and kept the pace going over the 90 minutes.

My Learning Approach is Constructivism

I find this remarkably interesting and this was once of my favourite aha moments of the course. I like to use scaffolding, modeling, collaborative learning, anchored instruction, and problem-based learning. I went back to my research on this learning theory. (Added here in the Appendix for my own reference.) I gave them some time to go over the Notes and Quotes together and the 8 International Marketing Fails. They like that even if sometimes they lose focus – it is part of the process and the class. I trust they will get back on target and they like that – many are taking six courses, have children and have jobs.

What I need to change

Slides Busy

Some of them were busy – maybe reduce the information down on some of them and I did read off a few of them as a result. (the more complex the more this can happen and I try not to read off them much – the curse of PowerPoint!). I like to use more videos generally, but I did need to get through this material.

Slides – Maybe too many

I presented over 50 slides and maybe that is too many although I did try to skip over some of the more complex ones.

Pronunciation – A few broken thoughts

I did have a few bad pronunciations like UAI and I did talk about the melting ocean and my wife being Australian a few too many times !! lol. What is ”succeed successfully”? lol. Made a few technical, editing mistakes as well. I don’t always do everything from A to B but go with the flow and try and stay on track.

Mask

I should have just taken it off as I am far away from them and keeping a good social distance. It was so distracting.

Constructivism

Introduce some of these learning activities as the semester develops. I really like them and enjoy everything about this teaching theory.

I skipped a few things

Whats Happening Today?

https://edition.cnn.com/2020/01/21/us/five-things-january-21-trnd/index.html

Activity 4 Aussie Sayings

Conclusion

Overall, I was quite happy with the way the class went but there a few things to work on as always and I will reflect on those and move forward.

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References

1. Quotes on Learning https://www.goodreads.com/quotes/tag/teaching

2. Merriam, S.B., & Bierema, L.L. (2014). Jossey-Bass Adult Learning: Linking Theory and Practice

3. Website retrieved from http://teachinglearningresources.pbworks.com/w/page/19919565/Learning%20Theories

4. MR2700 International Marketing Lesson Video – Peter Robertson August 6th 2020- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8Q_feWoPBdA

Appendix

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Constructivism3

The Role of The Learners3

Learning is an active process in which learners construct new ideas or concepts based upon their current/past knowledge, social interactions, and motivation affect the construction.

The Role of the Teachers3

Educators focus on making connections between facts and fostering new understanding in students. Instructors tailor their teaching strategies to student responses and encourage students to analyze, interpret, and predict information. Teachers also rely heavily on open-ended questions and promote extensive dialogue among students.

Constructivism calls for the elimination of a standardized curriculum. Instead, it promotes using curricula customized to the students’ prior knowledge. Also, it emphasizes hands-on problem solving.

Key Concepts3

Constructivism focuses on how learners construct their own meaning.  They ask questions, develop answers and interact and interpret the environment.  By doing these things, they incorporate new knowledge with prior knowledge to create new meanings.

1.  Multiple perspectives and representations of concepts and content are presented and encouraged.

2.  Goals and objectives are derived by the student or in negotiation with the teacher or system.

3.  Teachers serve in the role of guides, monitors, coaches, tutors and facilitators.

4.  Activities, opportunities, tools and environments are provided to encourage metacognition, self-analysis -regulation, -reflection & -awareness.

5.  The student plays a central role in mediating and controlling learning.

6.  Learning situations, environments, skills, content and tasks are relevant, realistic, authentic and represent the natural complexities of the ‘real world’.

7.  Primary sources of data are used in order to ensure authenticity and real-world complexity.

8.  Knowledge construction and not reproduction is emphasized.

9.  This construction takes place in individual contexts and through social negotiation, collaboration and experience.

10.      The learner’s previous knowledge constructions, beliefs and attitudes are considered in the knowledge construction process.

11.      Problem-solving, higher-order thinking skills and deep understanding are emphasized.

12.      Errors provide the opportunity for insight into students’ previous knowledge constructions.

13.      Exploration is a favored approach in order to encourage students to seek knowledge independently and to manage the pursuit of their goals.

14.      Learners are provided with the opportunity for apprenticeship learning in which there is an increasing complexity of tasks, skills and knowledge acquisition.

15.      Knowledge complexity is reflected in an emphasis on conceptual interrelatedness and interdisciplinary learning.

16.      Collaborative and cooperative learning are favored in order to expose the learner to alternative viewpoints.

17.      Scaffolding is facilitated to help students perform just beyond the limits of their ability.

18.      Assessment is authentic and interwoven with teaching.

How Does Learning Take Place3

Constructivism promotes a more open-ended learning experience where the methods and results of learning are not easily measured and may not be the same for each learner.

Piaget

·   All knowledge is a human construction.

·   The learner starts with a blank slate.

·   Not logical thinking.

1. Learning is an internal process that occurs in the mind of the individual.

2. Cognitive conflict is essential to the learning process.

Dewey

·   Education’s connection with society, outside world, life.

·   What we learn should have meaningful relevancy.

·   Instruction should center around the child’s experience

Bruner

·   Learner constructs new ideas or concepts based upon their current/past knowledge

·   Learning by discovery through developmental stages.

·   Benchmarks reveal each stage of child’s development, interaction & discovery is learning.

·   Education relevant to student’s need, stages in cognitive development

Merrill

·       knowledge is constructed from experience

·       learning is a personal interpretation of the world

·       learning is an active process in which meaning is developed on the basis of experience

·       conceptual growth comes from the negotiation of meaning, the sharing of multiple perspectives and the changing of our internal representations through collaborative learning

·       learning should be situated in realistic settings; testing should be integrated with the task and not a separate activity

Vygotsky’s theory presents three principles:

1. Making meaning – the community places a central role, and the people around the student greatly affect the way he or she sees the world.

2. Tools for cognitive development – the type and quality of these tools (culture, language, important adults to the student) determine the pattern and rate of development.

3. The Zone of Proximal Development – problem solving skills of tasks can be placed into three categories: Those performed independently by the learner. Those that cannot be performed even with help. Those that fall between the two extremes, the tasks that can be performed with help from others.

Seymour Papert

·       Mathetics—the art of learning.

·       Guidelines for the art of learning. First principle-Give yourself time.  Second principle-discussion.  Third principle-look for connections.

·       The building of knowledge is the goal.  Decrease amount of teaching and increase student projects.

Relevance to Educational Technology3

As opposed to an objective approach to learning, constructivism is more
open-ended in expectation where the results and even the methods of learning themselves are not easily measured and may not be consistent with each learner.

  • Case-Based Learning
  • Authentic situations
  • Multiple cases to build cognitive flexibility
  • Social interactions, collaborations
  • Assessment of activity
  • Shift teacher’s role to scaffolding, modeling, coaching of learners
  • Experiences are critical
  • Shift from behavioral objectives to activity goals
  • Advance organizers

Possible Learning Activities3

  • Modeling
    • Collaborative Learning
    • Coaching
    • Scaffolding
    • Problem-Based Learning
    • Authentic Learning
    • Anchored Instruction
    • Cognitive Flexibility Hypertexts
    • Object-based Learning

Strengths3

Content can be presented from multiple perspectives using case studies, learners can develop and articulate new and individual representations of information, and active knowledge construction is promoted over passive transmission of information.

Because the learner is able to interpret multiple realities, the learner is better able to deal with real life situations. If learners can problem solve, they may better apply their existing knowledge to a novel situation.

Weaknesses3

Since constructivism promotes individual learner interpretations and interests, this can pose an instructional problem. There could potentially be problems in adequately evaluating learning. Learners may each have different experiences within the learning process but each have valid and sufficient learning take place (McLeod, n.d.)

In a situation where conformity is essential divergent thinking and action may cause problems.

Peter Robertson Art Gallery Edmonton Alberta 2009