Genius is one percent inspiration, ninety-nine percent perspiration.
Thomas Edison – Spoken statement (c. 1903); published in Harper’s Monthly (September 1932).
I often quote myself. It adds spice to my conversation.
Teaching without learning is just talking…….
PIDP 3270 Capstone
My approach to this Assignment was to review the course descriptions and then look back on my course materials and what I prepared and the things that jumped out at me when we were tasked to reflect on what we learned in the course. I found this approach of reflection especially useful and looking back on some of my own reflections I have excerpted some of the key things that I was thinking about when I took these courses over several years. There was so much to learn and it was such a rewarding experience and there is not enough space or time to cover all the learning that I took away with me but these are some of the key things that I learned and reflected on as I became a better master of my craft of teaching.
Objective Questions: What brought you to the program? What is your teaching background/subject matter expertise? Where have you taught in the past? What are you currently teaching? Where? What have you learned during your PIDP journey? • Design, delivery and evaluation of learning? • Instructional strategies and use of media? • Ethics and professionalism? • Adult education theory? What events and accomplishments did you realize? What lessons caught your imagination? What classroom experiences are memorable?
When I first arrived at CNAQ in August 2014 I had to enroll in the ISW program within a year of my arrival (everyone does) and I was really interested so I signed up as soon as it was offered in the fall of 2014. There was discussion during that program that the course was eligible for the VCC program and we could get a Provincial Adult Instructors Diploma after taking their courses and that the College was looking at having people from VCC come out to Qatar to teach us. I was extremely excited and started my journey. We all paid for this ourselves as there was no professional development money.
I had been teaching adults part time since 2003 at the University of Alberta where I taught Major Account Strategy in the Sales Citation Program of which I am a graduate. Once I started to teach, other opportunities came along such as E-Commerce and Strategy at Athabasca University, face to face and online, Public Relations at NAIT and Competitive Intelligence at McEwan.
I first taught fulltime in 2009 when I went to Chandigarh, India for six months with TRU (Kamloops) and then again fulltime in 2011 at Higher Colleges of Technology in Abu Dhabi, United Arb Emirates. I later moved to CNAQ and Qatar in 2014.
My areas of expertise are business – entrepreneurship, marketing, human resources, project management and law to name a few areas and I have written many courses both face to face and recently online. I had the opportunity one summer, to teach conversational English to 14 to 17-year-old Emirati and expat boys during Ramadan and that was incredibly challenging, but we had lots of fun. I had the best attendance of all the classes offered as they loved my classroom and the lessons, I taught them. It took everything I had to keep them on topic for many reasons. I had an accreditation auditor attend my class who was really impressed, and I ended up on television as well.
What I liked about the Adult Instructor program is that I learned so many new techniques in the areas of assessment, course design, motivation, learning and learning strategies. I learned more about BOPPPS and Bloom and really improved my knowledge and skills. I am extremely interested in gamification and wrote about it in several of my courses and I see how they respond to Socrative and Kahoot, so I am a big fan. They forget they are learning.
The instruction was just fantastic and the instructors all modeled good teaching and were so professional. We had some good discussions in our classes and there was always lots of energy. We were all self-motivated and we also motivated each other outside the classroom.
Reflective Questions: What were the high points during the program? What were some of your challenges or frustrations? Speaking generally, how did people influence you?
There were so many high points and I learned so much from my colleagues. Learning to be reflective was a great take away for me. When I was working on my Dacum for Professional Selling my colleagues were most helpful and pointed out some things that I did not see. For example, my colleagues gave me these suggested improvements.
Some of the changes I made to the Course Outline after looking at the Dacum were the following.
- I simplified the wording – eliminating the double wording where possible.
- I revised Section 2.0 on Retailing (we have a course on this and there was duplication and it needed to be simplified). I have struggled with the material in this section in the past.
- When I presented my Dacum to my colleagues Patsy and Paul they had some excellent observations that I noted. A) It was very Cognitive heavy – “Peter is there room for Affective and Psychomotor skills?” I replied that the Sales Presentation which is worth 40% – (see below) is very hands on – they have to do a sales presentation which is recorded for review and analysis. They both liked that answer. B) When we discussed the Affective I realized that there is a huge opportunity for improvement to discuss things like Professionalism and Ethics which are so important. Dr. Charles Futrell15 really talks a lot about this. I added another deliverable – Learning Objective called Professional Selling and Ethics – 10.0 and I found some videos on the topic as well to integrate into the course material. Placing others before yourself and how wrong that is – look after your customers and “don’t sell a Camaro to your grandmother”! Charles Futrell’s Video on the sales process. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bSSmS1VIWRA
Another high point was the learning about learning – I had the content down, but I needed some techniques and I got lots of ideas. When we reflected on Cognitive dissonance and how it plays a role in many value judgments, decisions, and evaluations I was most interested.16 Becoming aware of how conflicting beliefs impact the decision-making process is a great way to improve your ability to make faster and more accurate choices and plays an important role in curriculum development and teaching. We had a great round table discussion on this subject.
There were lots of learnings in the course and it was most enjoyable. The Dacum exercise was most useful. I feel that the Cognitive and Affective components are more in focus now and I feel that it is a better course outline for my course with better activities (Lesson Plan exercise was excellent).
The courses kept me busy as work did not wait for me and class sizes increased, new courses needed to be developed and we worked on new degree courses. Because it was so enjoyable the extra work and time were not very noticeable.
There were few low points but two stick out. Both my responsibility. PIDP 3240 Media Enhanced Learning and I has some challenges because I missed deadlines as I was too busy when I signed up and had other responsibilities which resulted in me missing deadlines and having to repeat it more than once. I finally got it completed and enjoyed it very much.
Another mistake I made was not referencing one of my assignments. It was an Assessment tool that I found that was exceptionally good, but I did not reference it properly and I got a zero on my assignment that I deserved. I will remember that lesson.
My colleagues were a big part of my success and one example I recall was the lesson plan Mark Lavin and I developed and our virtual field trip:
Mark and I presented a set called Field Trips from the wonderful book “called Student Engagement Techniques by Elizabeth Barkley”” but as a result of the challenges of going on an actual Field Trip we developed a virtual field trip to help identify the key tourist attractions of Doha for a class taking a Tourism Marketing course.
We developed an interactive game using a Cootie Catcher that students enjoyed to help them select their Top 8 places to see in Doha or the joke went “that they could choose them logically as opposed to the random selection of them by the Cootie Catcher.”
The final accurate solution based on data, Trip Advisor and previous experience was the following order for the Top 8 activities in Doha –
1. Souq Waqif – Haggle your way around Souq Waqif
2. MIA. – Wander around the Museum of Islamic Art
3. Dune – Bash your way to the inland sea
4. Sheikh Faisal Museum – See prehistoric remains
5. Banana Island – Chill out and spend a long weekend at Banana Island Resort
6. Katara – Hunt down the city’s best Karak
7. Corniche – Walk, run or cycle along the Corniche
8. Brunch – Hit a blow-out brunch
Mark and I worked together so well, and it was a memorable classroom experience We reflected on our learning strategy:
Why do you like the strategy?
I am a big fan of the learning that is provided by a Field Trip as it keeps the students seeing real life examples of their learning experiences. Students like the hands-on learning experience and seem to enjoy the opportunity to engage in a new way.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of the strategy?
Real life learnings that can’t be replicated in the classroom
Engaging, refreshing change of pace, active collaborative learning
Fun, learning that is real and an inclusive activity
Time consuming and observations noted above
Extensive planning required
Can represent cultural challenges in Qatar
…………………………………a virtual Field Trip can solve some of these issues
We had lots of fun working on this Instructional Strategy and presenting it and it was well received for being so creative (we presented from our bus – some chairs lined up as bus seats).
Interpretive Questions: What was a turning point for you during the program; an “aha” moment? In what ways did this program change some of your thinking about being an adult educator? What would be one key insight that you now have as a result of this journey? What teaching approaches most influenced you as a professional?
Our societies and economies have experienced a profound transformation from reliance on an industrial to a knowledge base. Global drivers increasingly bring to the fore what some call “21st century competencies” – including deep understanding, flexibility, and the capacity to make creative connections, a range of so-called “soft-skills” including good team working. The quantity and quality of learning thus become central, with the accompanying concern that traditional educational approaches are insufficient.” Dumont and Istane (2010)1
I really like this quote and it was one of my first aha moments in the course about how learning is changing, I really enjoyed what I was learning on my own, through my colleagues or through the course and I learned in many different ways.
We always talk about the 21st century and how different things are from the past and our new knowledge economy where information increases as does our speed of access to it. Soft skills include good teamwork but also other things such as getting along with others, ethics and often referred to as people skills.
There is often discussion around emotional intelligence where the leaders of companies and projects for example need the soft and hard skills to do their jobs. As an educator it is important for me to keep up to the changes that surround me in the new economy where classrooms are flipped (videos are for homework and the students come to class to demonstrate understanding. – P.5 Merriam and Bierema)2 and people talk about bringing their own devices for example. Collectively educators need to look at these trends, understand them and make changes to the way we teach so the leaders of tomorrow will have the skills required to compete effectively. As educators we need to help our students to develop the skills to access current and reliable information, critically analyze it and be able to use that information in a logical and effective way.
I learned about creativity in teaching and not just being the talking head and there is a greater need for instructors to help students be more creative in how they learn. They need to know how to learn as the game changes so quickly. A quote in the book noted that “most professional preparation becomes outdated before one gets situated in a career “. Hewlett Packard has estimated that what one learns in a Bachelor of Engineering Program is outdated or “deconstructs itself in 18 months and for the technology fields the half-life is even less. Students need to be prepared as self-directed, lifelong learners “for jobs that do not yet exist, to use technologies that have not been invented, and to solve problems that we don’t even know are problems yet” (Darling-Hammond et all 2008 P.2 )(Quoted on P.5 Merriam and Bierema)2 They must be prepared to continually advance their knowledge and skills. They will be expected to keep pace with rapid changes and apply their knowledge and skills to diverse situations and environments. What employers want are employees who can process information, understand what is happening, be creative problem solvers, and make good decisions often with limited information.
Skype and Zoom puts us right there in the room and with Covid 19 we were all as educators, thrown into online learning which I had experience with before at Athabasca University where I taught e-commerce online but there was much to learn and I had to develop a course Workplace Professionalism for myself and my colleagues in D2L using Zoom in less than six weeks for delivery starting in April this year for over 100 students.
With Microsoft Teams and Skype and Zoom and D2L (our learning system at CNAQ) we learned we can work on projects with others almost anywhere in the world. There are challenges though with working with a diverse team as there is a greater chance of miscommunication and misunderstanding. Soft skills become more important so that team members can be respectful and sensitive to differences like age, cultural, etc. when working with each other.
Another thing I really liked was the Skype call from Glenn at the beginning. I liked the connection and then the Skype call with a partner. It helped make the connection as sometimes you feel very alone when you are online. It is important to be connecting to the course and others. We were lucky to have many of us taking this course online at our company, so we did have some offline pressure to get done as well, as you saw colleagues at CNAQ.
I learned that knowledge and learning comes in many forms. There can be more than one goal when helping students to learn. Meeting the learning objective is just part of what can be taught. How students learn can help them to develop valuable skills in the future and we need as educators to address any gaps required in the 21st Century through learning ourselves how to be more effective. We need to be ahead of that curve.
I did several assignments on gamification, a theme that stuck with me throughout the program and focused on in PIDP 3240 Media Enhanced Learning. I have developed so many Kahoots and learning games in my teaching career and they have been well received by the students and I use them in the classroom as seen from my assignment 2 from this course and classroom video.
Another key discussion area was Lifelong learning. Lifelong learning is not a choice, it is a necessity. Whether we realize it or not, we are all lifelong learners and thus learning how to learn can just train us, to do effectively, what we all do, all our lives- learn. We need to embrace change to learn.
Blooms Taxonomy was an area that we discussed and learned about that became a backbone of my teaching and classes.3
“When you want to teach children to think, you begin by treating them seriously when they are little, giving them responsibilities, talking to them candidly, providing privacy and solitude for them, and making them readers and thinkers of significant thoughts from the beginning. That’s if you want to teach them to think.”
― Bertrand Russell
Another topic in the course was so interesting was Experiential Learning Theory that emphasizes the role that true experiences play in the learning process. It is this emphasis that distinguishes itself from other learning theories. Cognitive learning theories emphasize cognition over affect and behavioral learning theories deny any role for subjective experience in the learning process.
I also learned that scholars in the field of education have two contrasting views when it comes to the concept of experiential learning. The first view defines experiential learning as a sort of learning which enables students to apply newly acquired knowledge in a relevant setting. The relevant setting can be a sponsored institution of learning with trainers, instructors, teachers, or professors to guide the lesson. The other school of thought defines experiential learning as “education that occurs as a direct participation in the events of life” (Houle, 1980, p. 221)4. It was remarkably interesting, and we looked at our teaching styles as well. I am a behaviorist and a constructivist.
PIDP 3210 Curriculum Development. I really enjoyed this course and made some great improvements to my course outlines for Professional Selling and for Entrepreneurship and Retailing. Actively working on the Course Outline and PIRS (CNAQ Learning Objectives) and developing the Dacum was rewarding. I feel that the Cognitive and Affective components are more in focus now and I feel that it is a better course outline for my course with better activities (Lesson Plan exercise was excellent).
Also, we reflected on Cognitive dissonance and how it plays a role in many value judgments, decisions, and evaluations. 5 Becoming aware of how conflicting beliefs impact the decision-making process is a great way to improve your ability to make faster and more accurate choices and plays an important role in curriculum development and teaching.
PIDP 3240 Media Enhanced Learning gave me lots of ideas and I really enjoyed the material and research I did while looking deeper into the topic. I focused on Screen O Matic and worked on my Kahoots and wrote an essay on gamification and media/technology in the classroom”. I did the video lesson on Peter’s juicy meatballs that I presented to my colleague in Vancouver. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L6locLClxns
I learned more about media and new technology. The role of media in the development of education has been imperative. It has played an important part in influencing the underprivileged and the socio-economic backward sections of the society in recognizing the significance of education. Various forms of media such as newspapers, television, radio, internet and so forth have largely contributed in spreading amongst the masses the viewpoint that they should focus upon the development of the basic literacy skills of reading, writing and arithmetic, in order to make their living efficient.6
Learning is a process to acquire knowledge. It needs hard work and sometimes will make students frustrated and bored. In this case, the use of media in teaching- learning process is needed to attract students’ attention and to make teaching- learning activities more interesting and effective.
I did lots of research in the course on the use of media which leads students to learn by doing. In other words we can say that in learning by doing process, students improve themselves from know nothing to know something, from know something to understand the concept. When students use media in learning then they will have the experience of learning and directly involve in the learning process.7
”Technology arouses interest and enthusiasm in the mind-sets of the students to learn. Therefore, the role of media is significant in the development of education.” 6
Technology can deliver new educational opportunities for everyone. It offers huge opportunities to transform global education at all age levels. Technology continues to develop at a rapid pace and access to technologies such as mobile phones and the internet is growing.
CEO of Silicon Schools Brian Greenberg says that evolving technology doesn’t undermine a teacher’s role in the classroom; instead, it augments it.7
“Technology is important, but it’s really just the means to an end,” Greenberg said. “The real magic is in giving great educators freedom and license into how school works.”7
“The real purpose of education is for the brain to be empowered with information,” said Brian Greenberg. “We’re teaching students to learn to think, to learn to learn, and to critically assess a situation.”7
New technologies like AI, machine learning, and educational software aren’t just changing the field for students, they’re shaking up the role of educators, creating philosophical shifts in approaches to teaching, and remodeling the classroom.8
Digital skills are necessary for taking part in the global economy. Mobile technologies have reached even the poorest parts of the world – but skill gaps remain, and school students are often taught skills that will not help them to access jobs in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Math).8
There is a risk of technology being deployed in a way that rewards young people in richer countries and leaves others in low-income countries lagging behind when it comes to getting the skills needed for the new economies.9
I wrote on the role of media in the classroom as my assessment and did the video on juicy meatballs for my lesson. I figured out YouTube editor and I put lots of effort into my reflections as I was so interested in the topic of technology in the classroom.
Decisional Questions: How will this educational experience inform your professional practice? How will you continue your professional growth journey in the future?
I enjoyed the media course – PIDP 3240 Media Enhanced Learning and the first course PIDP 3100 Foundations of Learning but I felt great when I finished a week of face to face courses with my colleagues. We would start class after our workday and carry on through the weekend. I decided I like face to face the most as it motivates and engages me, but I found out I am more than capable and do enjoy learning on line. When I did my MBA with Athabasca University we were in cohorts with timelines and deadlines for assignment and we worked alone and in groups. It was great. When I taught online, I used Zoom to bring everyone together and took attendance. It was well received.
As an overall teaching strategy: you should create the conditions that will *elicit the behaviour that you want from your class or an individual student. – The English Teacher10
Motivating students to apply themselves in the classroom requires knowing them, their beliefs, their anxieties, and their backgrounds—and customizing approaches that are responsive to each. It does not require “dumbing things down,” a common feature of lower-tracked classes.
A more research-driven and student-centered approach would be to push all people toward incremental growth in their knowledge and skills, and to ascertain what motivates each individual student to achieve in a particular class. Teachers can then enlist the student’s help in identifying factors that might elevate his or her motivation, including changes to the classroom and curriculum or changes to the individual’s beliefs and behaviors11.
“Simply having experiences does not imply that they are reflected on, understood or analyzed critically. Individual experiences can be distorted, self-fulfilling, unexamined and constraining.” (Brookfield, 2006 P. 12) 1.
This is an interesting quote as it illustrates the need for self-reflection and the fact that experience does teach us important lessons but it they may not necessarily be enriching.
Brookfield notes that, “Events happen to us but experiences – the meanings to how we understand events – are constructed by us as we make sense of these events” (2006, p. 12)12. We need to put it into our context and reflect on what we learned. Reflection is critical to learning.
Learning is cyclical and very much a path to success that requires reflection. Learning occurs when the path can be examined by the learner in this moment of reflection. The full extent of learning happens when learners can understand this path and the process of learning.
MacKeracher (2006) 14 also describes learning as cyclical, in which the learner:
- Participates in experiences and gathers information;
- Makes sense of experiences by giving it meaning and recognizing patterns;
- Applies meanings in decision making and choices;
- Acts within a situation that involves the environment or people, testing decisions made; and
- Gathers responses from environment or people, thus providing information for a new learning cycle.
In the article “The Learning Way—Learning from Experience as the Path to Lifelong by Learning and Development.” By Passarelli and Kolb. 12. The cyclical path of learning has also been described as concrete experience, reflective observation, abstract conceptualization, active experimentation by Kolb (1984); and as disorientation, exploration, reorientation, then equilibrium by Taylor (1979; 1987)4
There can be challenges to learning as noted by Kolb. This can be caused by moving too quickly through the learning cycle, or by skipping parts of the cycle. This would explain why students can become stuck.
A crucial element of the learning cycle is the gathering of feedback of experiences, whether it be from other individuals or the environment itself (MacKeracher, 2006)14. It is so important to be reflective as an instructor or otherwise we may become stuck as well.
There needs to be time for reflection for both the students and the instructor and that is what Brookfield and others are pointing out here.
In consideration of the importance of the entire cycle of learning, I would like to look at implementing the following in my classes:
- Discuss that learning is really a learning cycle and that there may be challenges if the learning cycle path is not followed or skipped.
- There needs to be time for reflection in class and outside of class.
- Some examples of activities that can be used outside of the classroom can include journaling, blogging, podcasts, or discussion forums.
- Schedule reflection for the next day before the next topic is introduced. This will also allow time for the student to process their thoughts and gather feedback from others before making a statement. This will work well in my Project Management class where there is considerable information delivered in a short period of time. I want to develop a discussion forum in this course.
I completed the ISW courses and it was great to do mini lessons and present it to my colleagues. One of my lessons was Canva which I presented using PowerPoint, a word handout and Canva itself. I learned to use WordPress and developed a blog on my Adult Education Journey which I will continue to expand. https://blogpeterblog.wordpress.com/ https://blogpeterblog.wordpress.com/about/
Lesson planning was a big part of the course and I learned about BOPPPS for the first time and I loved this quote- ”If you don’t know where you are going, you might end up somewhere else – Yogi Berra””
I am also committed in the future to team teaching as the are many advantages and I would like to explore it further as I only did it a little in my EP2200 Business Planning course.
Team teaching involves a group of instructors working purposefully, regularly, and cooperatively to help a group of students of any age learn. Teachers together set goals for a course, design a syllabus, prepare individual lesson plans, teach students, and evaluate the results. They share insights, argue with one another, and perhaps even challenge students to decide which approach is better17.
Teams can be single-discipline, interdisciplinary, or school-within-a-school teams that meet with a common set of students over an extended period. New teachers may be paired with veteran teachers. Innovations are encouraged, and modifications in class size, location, and time are permitted. Different personalities, voices, values, and approaches spark interest, keep attention, and prevent boredom17.
I also set out some goals professionally and this Diploma was one of them. Next is to start my Doctorate. I am about to change jobs and I am taking on a new role where I will not be teaching much. I really wanted to finish this off because I will be using what I learned in my new role as Case Manager for HEC Paris Qatar – writing cases and managing the Centre based in Tornado Tower – above. We will develop MENA and GCC cases that we will use in the classroom for teaching purposes to improve engagement and interest from the students in the Executive MBA programs. I will be teaching people to write cases and collaborating with my colleagues in France and others around the world and across town at other Qatar Foundation universities. The initiative is funded by Sheikha Moza bint Nasser, mother of the Emir Tamim Al Thani and wife of the father Emir Hamid Al Thani. Sheikha Moza bint Nasser is the consort of Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani, former Emir of the State of Qatar. Since 1995, Sheikha Moza has led education and social reforms in Qatar and has founded national and international development projects including WISE and Qatar Foundation. Her daughter is a HEC graduate and she loves the University.
This was an incredible experience and I learned so much over the course of time which was a little longer than I expected but I was busy with increased classroom assignments and new responsibilities to cover.
There are so many learnings that I took from these courses and I became much better at my craft as I worked through the material and did the research and importantly did my reflections on what I was reading and learning from the materials and from my colleagues. As I was preparing this Assignment, I read through my reflections again and used many of them in this document. It was just an amazing experience and I needed to reflect in detail on this Diploma as I change employers and move away from teaching full time for the moment.
I learned lots about teaching, learning, assessments, adult education theory, classroom management, media and putting it all together and it certainly improved my teaching skills and my classroom engagement.
In conclusion, this is longer than I planned but this is fascinating information. I had fun and I learned so much and I cannot say enough about the experience. I was engaged and motivated. Which is how I want my students to be!
Thank you to all of you – it was an absolute pleasure.
1. Dumont, H., Istance, D. & Benavides, F. (2010) The Nature of Learning: Using Research to Inspire Practice. Paris: OECD.
2. Merriam, S.B., & Bierema, L.L. (2014). Jossey-Bass Adult Learning: Linking Theory and Practice.
3. Bloom’s Taxonomy retrieved from http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/bloomtax.htm
4. Experiential Learning – Retrieved from http://wilderdom.com/experiential/ExperientialLearningWhatIs.html
5. Website retrieved from https://www.verywell.com/what-is-cognitive-dissonance-2795012
6. Role of Media in the Development of Education Dr. Radhika Kapur PDF retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/323725768_Role_of_Media_in_the_Development_of_Education
7. How Technology is shaping the future of Education Website Business Insider retrieved from https://www.businessinsider.com/how-technology-is-shaping-the-future-of-education-2017-12
8. How Technology is shaping the future of Education Website Business Insider retrieved from https://www.businessinsider.com/how-technology-is-shaping-the-future-of-education-2017-12
9. Technology and Education Website retrieved from https://theirworld.org/explainers/technology-and-education
10. The English Teacher – Web Site – http://teacher2b.com/strategies/teachstr.htm
11. Motivation, Engagement and Student Voice – Web Site – http://www.jff.org/sites/default/files/publications/materials/Exec_Toshalis%26Nakkula_032312.pdf
12. Brookfield, S. (2006). The Skillful Teacher: On Technique, Trust, and Responsiveness in the Classroom (2nd ed). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
13. The Learning Way—Learning from Experience as the Path to Lifelong Learning and Development by Angela M. Passarelli & David A. Kolb Department of Organizational Behavior Weatherhead School of Management Case Western Reserve University Cleveland OH 44106-7235 e-mail: email@example.com https://weatherhead.case.edu/departments/organizational-behavior/workingPapers/WP-09-03.pdf
14. MacKeracher, D. (2006). Making Sense of Adult Learning (2nd. ed., Repr). Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press.
15. Charles Futrell – Linked In – https://www.linkedin.com/in/charles-futrell-367bbb6
16. Website retrieved from https://www.verywell.com/what-is-cognitive-dissonance-2795012
17. Team Teaching – Advantages and Disadvantages – Website http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/2493/Team-Teaching.html